Advanced student motivation in craft teacher education

Learning new yarn crafts at university study courses



Emneord (Nøkkelord):

craft teacher education, student motivation, university pedagogy, yarn crafts, flipped learning


This study investigates student craft teachers’ motivational issues within the course frameworks covering yarn crafts. The data consist of materials gathered from two bachelor-level university courses, which both utilized flipped learning as their pedagogy framework for learning and teaching crafts. Advanced-level student craft teachers participating in the courses (N=15+4) set their own learning objectives to reflect the general course targets defined by the course curriculum. The objectives, self-assessments, course work and course-end surveys were acquired as research data and analysed by thematical qualitative analysis, to obtain knowledge of extrinsic and intrinsic motivations. In line with Self-Determination Theory used as a theoretical framework of the study, the results suggest that possibilities to finetune course objectives to meet students' personal skills and resources were considered crucial for study motivation. Craft learning embraced realization of one’s effort, inner potential  and values, resulting in student satisfaction about receiving personalized attention and instructions for their own study projects. Hence, the results enhance a more detailed understanding of student diversity and related motivational issues that can promote the equity of education.


Anna Kouhia, University of Helsinki

PhD, Docent


Tellervo Härkki, University of Turku

PhD, University Lecturer 


Bergman, J., & Sams, A. (2015). Flipped learning: Gateway to student engagement. International Society for Technology in Education.

Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77–101.

Brooks, L., Ta, K. H. N., Townsend, A. F., & Backman, C. L. (2019). “I just love it”: Avid knitters describe health and well-being through occupation. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 86(2), 114–124.

Corkhill, B., Hemmings, J., Maddock, A., & Riley, J. (2014). Knitting and well-being. Textile, 12(1), 34–57.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2015). Self-Determination Theory. In J. D. Wright (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, (2nd ed., pp. 486–491). Elsevier.

Johnson, J. S., & Wilson, L. E. (2005). “It says you really care”: Motivational factors of contemporary female handcrafters. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, 23(2), 115–130.

Kenning, G. (2015). “Fiddling with threads”: Craft-based textile activities and positive well-being. Textile, 13(1), 50–65.

Kiger, M. E. & Varpio, L. (2020). Thematic analysis of qualitative data: AMEE Guide No. 131. Medical Teacher, 42(8), 846–854,

Kokko, S., Almevik, G., Bentz Høgseth, H. C., & Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, P. (2020). Mapping the methodologies of the craft sciences in Finland, Sweden and Norway. Craft Research, 11(2), 177–209.

La Guardia, J. G. (2009). Developing who I am: A self-determination theory approach to the establishment of healthy identities. Educational Psychologist, 44(2), 90–104.

Liddle, J. L., Parkinson, L., & Sibbritt, D. W. (2013). Purpose and pleasure in late life: Conceptualising older women's participation in art and craft activities. Journal of Aging Studies, 27(4), 330–338.

Lin, Y. G., McKeachie, W. J., & Kim, Y. C. (2003). College student intrinsic and/or extrinsic motivation and learning. Learning and individual differences, 13(3), 251–258.

Myllys, R. (2020). Spiritual yarning: Craft-making as getting along in everyday life. Journal of Religion in Europe, 13(1–2), 121–143.

Olev, A & Alumäe, T. (2022). Estonian Speech Recognition and Transcription Editing Service. Baltic Journal of Modern Computing, 10(3), 409–421.

Porko-Hudd, M., Pöllänen, S., & Lindfors, E. (2018). Common and holistic crafts education in Finland. Techne Series - Research in Sloyd Education and Craft Science A, 25(3), 26–38.

Pöllänen, S. (2015). Elements of crafts that enhance well-being: Textile craft makers' descriptions of their leisure activity. Journal of leisure research, 47(1), 58–78.

Sjöberg, B., & Porko-Hudd, M. (2019). A life tangled in yarns–Leisure knitting for well-being. Techne Series - Research in Sloyd Education and Craft Science A, 26(2), 49–66.

Stannard, C. R., & Sanders, E. A. (2015). Motivations for participation in knitting among young women. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, 33(2), 99–114.

Rusiñol-Rodriguez, J., Rodriguez-Bailón, M., Ramon-Aribau, A., Torra, M. L. T., & Miralles, P. M. (2022). Knitting with and for others: Repercussions on motivation. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, 40(3), 203–219.

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 68–78.

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2020). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation from a self-determination theory perspective: Definitions, theory, practices, and future directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 61 (101860), 1–11

Wehmeyer, M., & Zhao, Y. (2020). Teaching students to become self-determined learners. ASCD.




Hvordan referere

Kouhia, A., & Härkki, T. (2023). Advanced student motivation in craft teacher education: Learning new yarn crafts at university study courses . FormAkademisk, 16(4).

Cited by