FormAkademisk - forskningstidsskrift for design og designdidaktikk 2021-05-10T00:00:00+02:00 Janne Beate Reitan Open Journal Systems <p>FormAkademisk – forskningstidsskrift for design og designdidaktikk –er et fagfellevurdert forum åpent for publisering av forskning innen design og designdidaktikk, slik som industridesign, visuell kommunikasjon, interaksjonsdesign, arkitektur, landskapsarkitektur og urbanisme, og utdanning på alle nivå fra barnehage til doktorgrad. FormAkademisk har som mål å skape et forum for utveksling av forskningsresultater og konsepter på tvers av ulike designkulturer og designpraksiser, innen designteori og designhistorie, praksisbasert forskning og designdidaktikk. </p> Editor-in-chief’s Editorial. Full conference proceedings – for the first time in FormAkademisk 2021-05-01T21:27:13+02:00 Janne Beate Reitan <p>In the current special issue, FormAkademisk, for the first time, will publish the complete proceedings of a conference. We are proud to announce that this will be the 1st Biennial International Conference for the Craft Sciences (BICCS, 2021), held on the 4–6th of May 2021 online, initiated by the Craft Laboratory, affiliated with the Department of Conservation, University of Gothenburg, Sweden. As a result of the Covid-19 situation, the conference will be held completely online. The special editor of this issue is Camilla Groth, who is also a member of our main editorial team. In addition, Tina Westerlund and Gunnar Almevik are members of this special issue editorial team (Groth et al., 2021).</p> 2021-05-10T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2021 Janne Beate Reitan ÇEYIZLAB: Crafting a Speculative Manifesto 2021-04-20T21:34:12+02:00 Hazal Gümüş Çiftçi Seçil Uğur Yavuz <p class="FAAbstract"><span lang="EN-US">Çeyizlab is a research project tackling with çeyiz (trousseau)- a traditional gift-giving to the bride in Turkey. Due to the societal changes, çeyiz is under a transformation. By looking at the past and speculating about the future of çeyiz, our research question emerged: Can we envision scenarios that would turn the existing transformation of this tradition into preferable futures? We answered this question by conducting online focus-groups, auto-ethnography sessions and expert interviews. Based on our analysis, the idea of a Manifesto has emerged. This manifesto was embroidered on a fabric reflecting the stories, memories and desires of the women with whom we interviewed. To spread out the message of the manifesto, we decided to make a short film that gives rise to discussions around the issues entangled within çeyiz.</span></p> 2021-05-10T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2021 Hazal Gümüş Çiftçi , Seçil Uğur Yavuz Reimagining lace in a digital space 2021-04-20T21:23:02+02:00 Cecilia Heffer <p><em>This paper presents how a contemporary lace practice explored the medium of animation as a</em><em> digital tool for craft research. Research is practice based and theoretically framed around notions of smooth and striated space as a means to articulate how a designer engages in textile thinking to reimagine new expressions for (p)lace in a digital age. The author sought to test out if animation could capture and disseminate an ephemeral lace process. This led to a </em><em>curious convergence between two disciplines. </em><em>What was initially to be a tool for efficiency and speed unexpectedly turned out to be a method for abstracting an allusive lace making process. Learning about the idiosyncrasies of another discipline opened new aesthetic opportunities for a contemporary lace practice and introduced novel methods to disseminate future material research. </em></p> 2021-05-10T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2021 camilla Groth; Cecilia Heffer Three Observations on Filming Tactility and Movement in Crafts-based Practice 2021-04-20T21:14:59+02:00 Wuon-Gean Ho <p>This film makes three observations on the filming of tactility and movement in order to adequately convey tacit knowledge in embodied ways. The author, Wuon-Gean Ho, studied the craft of traditional woodblock printmaking in Japan, and demonstrates planning, carving and printing of a woodblock print.</p> <p>The first observation is that an alteration of the time-base of the film and subsequent manipulation of the soundscape can provide embodied affects. Secondly the film refers to the effect of mirror-touch-synaesthesia with close macro shots and intimate angles. Thirdly, the use of a birds’ eye point of view, with the hands of the artist in the same anatomical position as the viewers’ hands, enables the gaze of the viewer to mimic that of the maker, conveying haptic knowledge through poetic means.The voiceover to the film is made with deliberate reference to ASMR videos that engender a sense of intimacy. The non-objectivity of the recording process is commented upon. The conclusion is that constructed scenarios might convey more than real-time truthful indexical footage.</p> 2021-05-10T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2021 Wuon-Gean Ho Ways of Tacit Knowing 2021-04-20T21:04:40+02:00 Joakim Seiler Lars Eriksson Tina Westerlund Gunnar Almevik <p><em>A common way to describe craft knowledge is through the figure of speech it's in your hands. With this description, there is no attempt made to explain the complex knowledge which is present in craft. One reason why these explanations are rarely articulated is that they consist of sensory judgments. With this film, Ways of Tacit Knowing, we argue that, with the help of film media, it is possible to decode and articulate some of the knowledge content embodied in craft that is often described as tacit knowledge. We, the producers of this film, are experienced craftspeople, which makes us at once both subjects and objects of the research—a methodology akin to auto-ethnography. In the film, we present examples of situations from practice in our different craft fields: the practice in cultivation and management in gardening and the practice of culinary crafts situated in the kitchen and in the dining room. This film presents a dialogue of knowledge in action with craftspeople who discuss their sensory-based judgments in crafts<span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span></em></p> 2021-05-10T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2021 Joakim Seiler, Lars Eriksson, Tina Westerlund, Gunnar Almevik Between Hemse and Mästermyr 2021-04-20T20:55:09+02:00 Gunnar Almevik Bertil Pärmsten Magnus Sjöholm <p>The distance between Hemse church and the fields of Mästermyr on the Swedish Island of Gotland is about eight kilometers. The distance or rather the proximity between these two places is given importance in this filmed research article. In the 1930s, a farmer found a wooden chest in Mästermyr containing hundreds of forged tools and other artefacts. During a restoration of the Romanesque Hemse church in the 1890s, reused parts of a stave church were discovered in the wooden floor. The hypothetical question that is investigated in this study is whether the tools from Mästermyr were used in the construction of Hemse stave church in the early 1100’s? This filmed article analyzes and compares the traces of toolmarks in Hemse stave church and the woodworking tools from the Märstermyr finding. Through a forensic examination involving 3D scanning with structured light, 3D printing and reconstruction of tools and woodworking procedures, it is revealed that several toolmarks in the stave church correspond to the characteristics of woodworking tools in the Mästermyr find. The tool's shape, dimensions and mode of operation are traced in its negative imprint in the stave church’s oak wood.<span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span></p> 2021-05-10T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2021 camilla Groth; Gunnar Almevik, Bertil Pärmsten, Magnus Sjöholm Crafting research communication in building history 2021-04-20T20:43:45+02:00 Gunnar Almevik Jonathan Westin <p><em>This research is presented through an interactive application. A virtual reconstruction based on the remains from a medieval stave church is used as a case study to re-establish the historic building as a tangible place and assemblage. Augmented by virtual reality, the research focuses on the sensuous aspects of the stave church as a whole—where architecture, artefacts, light, and materials interact—through the movements of approaching, entering, and dwelling. The research output is a virtual reconstruction, or a virtual diorama, that “re-members” the stave church elements and re-contextualises contemporaneous religious artefacts that have been dismembered and diffused in various exhibitions and deposits. The contribution in this research is methodological, seeking to test and provide a case to discuss how non-traditional research outcome can be crafted to elicit the sensuous aspects of research and still attend to the rigor of science. We seek to methodologise the digital artefact as a research output but also as a means for testing hypothesis and observing the effects when enacting the environment. The connection to the craft sciences concerns both the empirical material, the wooden stave church as a crafted object, and the exploration of an interactive application as a research output or hermeneutic device in the research process.<span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span></em></p> 2021-05-10T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2021 Gunnar Almevik, Jonathan Westin Crafting short films 2021-04-20T20:35:10+02:00 Päivi Fernström Mikaela Dahlberg Sirviö Sirviö Henna Lahti <p class="FAAbstract"><span lang="EN-US">In this article, we focus on film making as a part of craft studies and narrative inquiry. Short films were created in a course in the craft teacher master’s degree at the University of Helsinki. The aim of the course was to serve several purposes such as 1) to enable students to become familiar with a new way of deepening conceptual thinking through making, 2) to apply and develop craft skills in working on a selected concept or theme, and 3) to understand the dialogue between conceptual and material artefacts. We explore the opportunities to transmit multisensory experiences via short films. For illustration, we introduce two short films created during the course. Using the deliberative interviewing method, we have broadened the perspective on reflective and analytical level.</span></p> 2021-05-10T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2021 Päivi Fernström, Mikaela Dahlberg, Eeva-Leena Sirviö, Henna Lahti En ‘It's in my hands’ 2021-04-20T20:19:13+02:00 Tina Westerlund <p>Craft knowledge is built from examples of experience, and when experiences from many people are gathered and compared, new knowledge is developed. This requires either socialization between practitioners or a systematic collection of practice descriptions, such as in a manual. However, there is always a risk that knowledge that is difficult to put into words will never be communicated. The aim of this paper is to show how theoretical perspectives can be used as analytical tools to help us develop methods that support the communication of craft knowledge. Using an approach of research through practice in the field of gardening, and combining a tripartite theory of knowledge with a SECI-model analysis, I will discuss how it is possible to make practitioners’ subjective knowledge more readily available to others. </p> 2021-05-10T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2021 Tina Westerlund Editorial. Conference proceedings of the 1st Biennial International Conference for the Craft Sciences – BICCS 2021 2021-04-10T14:53:22+02:00 Camilla Groth Tina Westerlund Gunnar Almevik <p>The papers appearing in this issue comprise the proceedings of the 1st Biennial International Conference for the Craft Sciences, held online during 4–6 May 2021, initiated by the Craft Laboratory, affiliated at the Department of Conservation, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.</p> <p>The Craft Laboratory was established in 2010 in cooperation with heritage organisations, craft enterprises and trade organisations, to empower craftspeople in the complex processes of making. The comprehensive agenda is to bring research into practice and involve craftspeople in the processes of inquiry. Among the operational tools are <em>Master Classes</em> provided for highly trained professional craftspeople in particular skills. <em>Craft Scholarships</em> are offered to craftspeople to investigate a problem or question in their practice, or develop ideas to improve methods or techniques. The site-specific workshop capacity in Mariestad allows craft researchers to implement research questions in practice and to perform full-scale tests in our masonry, carpentry and painting workshops, as well as in the timber building yard, greenhouses and gardens.</p> 2021-05-10T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2021 Camilla Groth, Tina Westerlund, Gunnar Almevik Knowledge transfer in heritage cultural craft, damask weaving 2021-02-22T16:29:53+01:00 Clary Jönsson <p>The hand weaving of damask is no longer a craft that is commonly learned and very few books on the subject have been published in the last century. Damask weaving still exists among private practitioners, but what happens to the knowledge when nobody knows how to dress a loom and weave anymore? The aim of this study is to describe and compare damask weaving from a learning perspective in order to generate knowledge of how damask weaving is described in the literature and how the knowledge is communicated to increase understanding of the learning process and to generate a theoretical understanding of practical knowledge transfer. The method used is a literature study and open interviews with people who teach damask weaving. The study shows that the literature does not provide enough information on how to dress and weave damask. The interviews give a deeper understanding of the practical knowledge. The analysis shows that it is difficult to use only cognitive reading as interpretation from the body and hands are needed and the different steps need to be dissected in detail.</p> 2021-05-10T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2021 Ek.Lic. BA of Arts, textile Clary Jönsson Spinning wool on Kihnu Island 2021-02-22T15:59:13+01:00 Mathilde Frances Lind <p class="FAAbstract"><span lang="NO-BOK">Wool crafts are an essential part of cultural heritage and daily life on Kihnu Island in Estonia, and they begin with animal husbandry and wool preparation. People and sheep cooperatively produce wool, maintain the land through conservation grazing, and facilitate heritage activities while external and internal conditions and forces, like changing economic and demographic factors, provide challenges and friction. An ecological study of wool crafts in context requires attention to creative processes, tools, materials, landscapes, and human and other-than-human animals that are engaged in complex flows of activity and meaning with one another. Both ethnographic encounters and autoethnographic reflections on craft practice provide vital insight into these entanglements.</span></p> 2021-05-10T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2021 Mathilde Frances Lind Tutankhamun’s collar 2021-02-22T12:33:34+01:00 Marie Ekstedt Bjersing <p class="p2">The aim of this paper is to discuss what happens when repeating a reconstruction of the same textile. The author of this article is also the craftsperson that made the four reconstructions presented. The original collar reconstructed belonged to Tutankhamun. The collar is circular, woven in a circle. Before the reconstructions, this method of weaving circular shapes had not been described. The first reconstruction focused on the collar. Fifteen years later, three additional reconstructions were made. This time, the focus was to reconstruct the craft, by the use of fewer, simpler tools. Parallel to practical work there was an exploration of how to make documentation. One conclusion in the project is when changing focus from reconstructing a textile to reconstructing a craft, more similarity to the original was achieved.<span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span></p> 2021-05-10T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2021 Marie Ekstedt Bjersing An approach to boat documentation 2021-02-22T12:17:53+01:00 Fredrik Leijonhufvud <p>In this contribution, I present a methodological approach for the documentation of craft objects, including a comparison of traditional analogue methods and modern digital photogrammetry. From a boat builder’s perspective, I document traditional boats. In my current PhD project, I investigate how documentation of objects, from a craft person´s perspective, can be used to reconstruct craft processes. The case study is on the ‘öka’ from the Stockholm archipelago, a local variation of the Nordic clinker boat tradition. In this contribution, I present the basic structure of my boat documentation work and pinpoint some specific examples from the use of digital methods in comparison with analogue measuring. A good practice of documentation needs to consider both the advantages and the possible shortcomings of digital methods.</p> 2021-05-10T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2021 Fredrik Leijonhufvud Canoe-carving, Lamotrek style 2021-02-22T12:10:25+01:00 Simon Penny <p class="FAAbstract"><span lang="EN-US">Micronesian traditional canoe carvers of Lamotrek Atoll are one of the few Pacific communities whose canoe carving, ocean seafaring and indigenous navigation techniques are living traditions. They sail long distances on open ocean in these craft without instruments or maps, using traditional navigation techniques. Their building procedures involve no plans, no measuring devices or numbers. This kind of indigenous boatbuilding and seafaring was once practiced by virtually all Pacific island communities over hundreds or thousands of years, but the traditional knowledge has been eradicated in all but the most isolated and impoverished communities. </span></p> 2021-05-10T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2021 Simon Penny Twist-hands and shuttle-kissing 2021-02-22T11:51:08+01:00 Simon Penny Tom Fisher <p>This paper seeks to understand the skills of operating automated manufacturing machines of the C19th as craft practices, employing externally powered and automated tools around which new cultures of practice emerged. We draw upon situated/embodied/enactive/extended/distributed (SEEED) approaches to cognition to explicate the sensibilities of these practices, as well as the history of science and technology, Anthropology, STS and related fields. Our case study is a body of work focused on embodied/ embedded knowledge in the textile industry – specifically in the making of machine lace. We conclude with a proposal for multi-modal museum exhibits that provide an understanding of know-how, kinesthetic/proprioceptive skills and procedures. The authors are both long term practitioners of crafts, both traditional and industrial (see bios). This experience informs the research at every step.</p> 2021-05-10T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2021 Simon Penny, Tom Fisher Patterned Silk Weaving in Ancient Times 2021-02-22T11:36:26+01:00 Åse Eriksen <p>Patterned silks came to Scandinavia as small pieces of reused material, but they were still valuable for the Vikings to have been used as trimmings on their garments. In over a millennium, the weave structure of samitum in these fragments was used in all patterned silk. In the medieval it was displaced in favor for other structures. It has lapsed into obscurity for weavers today. <br />For several reasons the study of these silks has been difficult. The fragments are fragile. They were not made in Norway. Few have mastered this weaving technique. <br />Is it possible to reconstruct these ancient silks, based on the knowledge gained from studying historical silks and experience acquired from using the structure in modern textiles? This article is about my attempt to do so, and also my reflections of the possible longtime impact on these silks on the weaving tradition in Norway.</p> 2021-05-10T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2021 Åse Eriksen Theorising craft practices through sketching 2021-02-22T11:04:42+01:00 Camilla Gåfvels Viveca Lindberg <p>This article explores how craft practice is theorised through sketching, by comparing narratives about the role of sketching from interviewed Swedish upper secondary textile design and floristry education teachers, and aiming to discern connection to curriculum. The theory and methods used in the article are influenced by Ivor Goodson’s work on subject knowledge and curriculum change (1998). Empirical data was obtained from multiple sources, including interviews with four teachers. The findings reveal that, while sketching has been intrinsic to textile design and seamstress vocational knowing for considerable time, sketching is a relatively new phenomenon within floristry vocational knowing and education; essentially dating from the 2011 Swedish educational reform. The discussion claims that sketching provides means to theorise craft practice, through providing an intermediary level between the abstract (theory) and the concrete (objects) within the practice</p> 2021-05-10T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2021 camilla Gåfvels, Viveca Lindberg Craft as More-Than-Human 2021-02-22T09:59:08+01:00 Ragnar Vennatrø Harald Bentz Høgseth <p>This article considers craft science and practice-led research in light of more-than-human approaches to practice under the heading posthumanism, as found within humanities and social sciences in recent years. Practice-led research within craft science, represents a vital and ground-breaking field of inquiry, as an embodied subjective field of examination with an impressive ability to gain deep knowledge of various forms of skilled and/or natural practices. One aspect of practice that this research seems less able to grasp, is a broader practical connection between multiple ontologies of human and non-human practice. Going beyond a purely human phenomenology of craft, this article seeks a more symmetrical and post-anthropocentric approach to knowledge and materiality, as practice in multiple ontologies. This would mean a shift in how craft science view practice, from being a strictly operational aspect adhering to human practitioners, to practice as an ongoing more-than-human process by which phenomena (and practitioners) are brought into being and are maintained.</p> 2021-05-10T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2021 Ragnar Vennatrø , Harald Bentz Høgseth Exploring craft practice in learning communities 2021-02-22T09:48:23+01:00 Trine Møller Kirstine Riis <p>This paper presents an initial research project to explore what characterizes knowledge production in craft practice situated in an informal/neutral learning arena outside the education institution. The research project is carried out by craft and design researchers from Norway and Denmark. The project participants include students, academics, older generation volunteers with craft experience, freelance designers, and arts and craft persons, as well as researchers. The overall methodology is a case study approach and has references to practice-led research, participatory design research and A/R/Tography. In this paper we present the research design of the project. Along a theoretical framework consisting of research perspectives of each of our institutional traditions, we lastly discuss the challenges in engaging a neutral learning arena, throughout and as preparation for our research project.</p> <p> </p> 2021-05-10T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2021 Trine Møller, Kirstine Riis A role for industrial looms in craft research 2021-02-21T17:12:37+01:00 Kathryn Walters <p class="FAAbstract"><span lang="EN-US">As a definition of craft practice, the workmanship of risk emphasises the judgement and skill of the crafter, as they engage with materials, tools, and techniques to produce artefacts. Through experimental design research methods, self-forming three-dimensional textiles were created with the aim to develop both the use of digital and automated tools for weaving, and language to describe the process of textural forming in weaving when hand and machine meet. Examples of experimental work illustrate the potential of industrial looms as tools for crafting complex textile systems and expressions. The results include a method for crafting at the intersection of the workmanship of risk and CAD/CAM, providing a framework for this hybrid practice, while a new language of textile forming for craft including industrial and CAD/CAM tools emerges.</span></p> 2021-05-10T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2021 Kathryn Walters Heritage and Conservation of Nottingham Lace through Collaboration 2021-02-21T17:03:18+01:00 Amanda Briggs-Goode Tonya Outtram Deborah Dean <p><em>Nottingham is both the birthplace and the global centre of the machine-made lace industry and is home to the Nationally Designated collection of machine-made lace and machinery. In 2017 Lace Unravelled was launched with the aim to conserve the collection and connect with local ‘industry mentors’ to learn more about its objects.&nbsp; This led to wider collaborations and the exhibition ‘Lace Unarchived’, held at Nottingham Trent University intended to reveal the legacy of the art school, established in 1843, and its impact on the generations of lace designers it educated.&nbsp; This paper proposes to explore the project’s achievements, what it revealed, and what it has meant for the interpretation and understanding of the collection, and wider understanding of ‘Nottingham Lace’.</em></p> 2021-05-10T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2021 Amanda Briggs-Goode, Tonya Outtram, Deborah Dean Practitioners’ Experience in Clay 3D Printing 2021-02-21T16:49:06+01:00 Priska Falin Nur Horsanali Flemming Tvede Hansen Maarit Mäkelä <p>In the context of artistic research, making has been traditionally understood as a process between the maker and the material. However, the digitalization that influences all practices brings us new kinds of making processes in which the ‘digital tools’ have a profound impact on the practitioner’s experience – also in the context of art, craft and design. This study explores the maker’s experience from a practice-led approach to understanding the subjective experience with clay 3D printing. To open up the 3D printing process with clay using our embodied understanding, the full process is viewed metaphorically – borrowing from music. The preliminary findings show that metaphorical viewing and the use of a score enables a successful review of the nature of computer-based practices in a way that all aspects and potentials fall naturally into place.</p> 2021-05-10T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2021 Priska Falin, Nur Horsanali, Flemming Tvede Hansen, Maarit Mäkelä Crafting Collections between Vernacular and Institutional Practice 2021-02-21T16:34:14+01:00 Lizette Graden <p>This paper is based on ethnographic fieldwork and applies theories of crafting and performance to explore how living heritage practices are rethought, reframed, and refashioned when traditional dress and individual garments are moved, reorganized, and transformed into a collection following rationales derived from both family tradition and museum standards. By following one woman’s emerging collections, the study sheds light on ways of materializing relationships and shaping curatorial agency through acts of crafting. The study aims to show how deeper understanding of vernacular crafting of collections may inform institutional curatorial practice and heritage-making.</p> <p> </p> 2021-05-10T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2021 Lizette Graden Learning everyday technologies through playful experimenting and cooperative making in pre-primary education 2021-02-21T16:10:46+01:00 Virpi Yliverronen Marja-Leena Rönkkö Kaiju Kangas <p>The Finnish National Core Curriculum for pre-primary education (FNBE, 2014) emphasizes the promotion of children’s interests in science and technology, as well as in creative designing and making. The integrative STEAM approach is seen as promising for fostering students’ creative competencies starting from early education stages. In pre-primary education, the STEAM framework has received little research interest; the empirical evidence of its implementation is especially limited. The objective of this present study is to explore pre-primary students’ designing and making processes involving both traditional and digital craft elements, and how their learning of everyday technologies can be supported. The data consists of video recorded sessions, where pre-primary students (n=19, aged 5–6 years) were creating felted “Power Creatures” with soft circuits. The results indicate that with adult and peer student cooperation, pre-primary students are able to create original creatures and use digital elements as a part of their craft product. Playing is endorsed as a learning method to support pre-primary education in both tangible and abstract elements of technology</p> 2021-05-10T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2021 Virpi Yliverronen , Marja-Leena Rönkkö , Kaiju Kangas Approaches to Craft Studies at Higher Education 2021-02-21T16:00:08+01:00 Sirpa Kokko <p><em>The purpose of this article is to explore the various approaches to craft studies at higher education institutions. Based on fieldwork observations and document analysis of the curricula of four European and one US university craft study programmes, similarities and differences were found. The similarities concerned the pedagogy to acquire basic skills and the urge to keep up craft traditions. The differences concerned the broader aims of study and the students’ prospective career paths. The following approaches to craft studies in higher education were detected: 1. Educational crafts, 2. Traditional crafts, 3. Critical crafts, 4. Cultural heritage of crafts, and 5. Design-based crafts. </em></p> 2021-05-10T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2021 Sirpa Kokko Crafting Ceramics through the Use of Virtual Reality 2021-02-18T07:22:58+01:00 Flemming Tvede Hanssen <p class="FAAbstract"><span lang="EN-US">This paper reflects ongoing research about how new technology creates new possibilities within crafting and how it can build on traditional techniques within the field of ceramics. The research explores how virtual reality (VR), using Oculus Rift and 3D-printing in clay is suitable to link to the process of throwing vessels within ceramic crafts. The quality of the crafted objects in question is based on the ability of the presented technique to combine throwing and pattern-making as an integrated process while building up the thrown object, here named virtual pattern-throwing. Furthermore, it is argued that this use of VR for throwing makes it possible to recall a hands-on experience and thus weave the quality of the traditional craftsmanship with the virtual within the process of making vessels.</span></p> <p> </p> 2021-05-10T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2021 Flemming Tvede Hansen Artistic Expression and Material Limitations 2021-02-17T16:39:58+01:00 Anne Solberg <p>This paper explores the iterative process of striving for artistic expressivity and developing crafting techniques in a porcelain-making project. The paper is about mitigating the tensions and flaws in porcelain bodies by trying out technical solutions while searching for genuine porcelaneous expressivity in artmaking. The paper presents examples of a working process of material-based art, from the first samples of material collapse to an exhibition of finished works in an art gallery, allowing the reader to see how faults and failures contribute to this development. The paper advocates that craft science and artistic research are closely integrated and intertwined.</p> 2021-05-10T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2021 Anne Solberg Moments of entanglement 2021-02-17T16:24:11+01:00 Luis Vega Maarit Mäkelä Tzuyu Chen Pirita Seitamaa-Hakkarainen <p>This paper investigates the sociomateriality of collective creation in the context of a design studio project. Grounded in a relational approach that has influenced a multitude of studies in various fields, the notion of sociomateriality accounts for the constitutive entanglement of the social and the material in practice. How this entanglement occurs or what exactly is subjected to it, however, remains largely unarticulated, especially in studies where the handling of materials lies at the heart of the research process. By adopting a relational approach operationalized through qualitative network analysis, we traced the sociomaterial trajectories of a studio project to identify the moments in which various actors were entangled. The resulting network visualizes these moments and assists in explicating how they enabled the instantiation of intersubjective design ideas.</p> 2021-05-10T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2021 Luis Vega, Maarit Mäkelä, Tzuyu Chen, Pirita Seitamaa-Hakkarainen Crystals as Co-creators 2021-02-17T16:11:20+01:00 Sofie Boons <p>Grown crystals are used for a range of novel innovations supporting a wide array of industries. Within the jewellery industry however, grown crystals are only used in a limited capacity and mainly as a surrogate for mined gemstones. This paper investigates the methodology of Crystal Growing Design, through conducting experiments testing four hypotheses developed around the practice. Through utilising a DIY approach the author investigates the opportunities and challenges presented by incorporating the methodology into her jewellery design practice. Sugar, alum and salt are experimented with to provide a theoretical experimentation of the methodology to justify the further incorporation and adaptation of more enhanced growing processes as used for the growing of gemstone quality crystals.</p> 2021-05-10T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2021 Sofie Boons Using dialogue to express memories from a meal designer’s gastronomic professional practice 2021-02-16T15:02:47+01:00 Daniel Östergren Lars Eriksson Inger Jonsson <p>A meal consists of both tangible and intangible dimensions. Menus and photos may be the only documentation from a meal, but experiences are rarely saved beyond memory. The aim of this study is to design a method for documenting intangible aspects of the professional experience of a meal craftsman, based on the memories associated with the files in an archive. By sorting the archive according to a specific process of documentation we managed to revive and document also the intangible aspects of these meals. In order to access the intangible aspects, a version of the Socratic method of dialogue was developed and used. This is exemplified by a case. The dialogues reunited intangible aspects from the memories of the designer, such as motives and drivers, with the tangible archive documents.</p> 2021-05-10T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2021 Daniel Östergren , Lars Eriksson, Inger Jonsson Fish skin, a sustainable material used from ancient times to today's fashion 2021-02-16T14:43:05+01:00 Lotta Rahme <p>The use of fish skin is an ancient tradition in Arctic societies along rivers, streams and coasts all over the world. Fish skins were regarded as a useful material for parkas, boots, mittens and hats. Today the interest in making use of fish skin, an undeveloped by-product, is on the rise. By using different tanning techniques from cultures around the globe, fish skin has shown great promise as a material for clothing, as well as other products. There is also a desire to be able to tan these skins with environmentally friendly techniques. Today most animal skins are tanned using chromium and other cheap toxic substances, raising question around health and environmental safety. The knowledge of how to use these traditional tanning methods has been preserved by woman from cultures along the Arctic Circle stretching from the Nordic countries to Canada and Japan. In order to keep this knowledge alive for future generations, Sweden has re-introduced the possibility to receive a Master tanner´s title, increasing the incentive and status for those studying these important subjects. This is a report and narrative review of the field, and insights I have acquired over 3 decades; from student to Master Tanner.</p> 2021-05-10T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2021 Lotta Rahme H.D.’s Palimpsest and a weaving practice 2021-02-16T13:41:48+01:00 Jordana Infeld <p>The relationship between text and textile is ancient and multi-faceted. This paper aims to extend this relationship by placing a weaving practice in dialogue with H.D.’s novel Palimpsest. Weaving has a distinctive relationship with time, and therefore provides fertile ground for thinking through the way time is depicted in literary fiction. Time operates in weaving at various scales and rhythms, and Palimpsest furthers this understanding of time through its own rhythms and invocations of the image of the palimpsest. Drawing on my own weaving practice, my aim is to provide an account of how a craft practice might enable a particular method of reading texts that extends beyond traditional close reading methods.</p> 2021-05-10T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2021 Jordana Infeld Humanitarian Handicrafts 2021-02-16T13:35:04+01:00 Rebecca Gill Claire Barber Bertrand Taithe <p class="FAAbstract"><span lang="EN-US">This paper asks how craft practice can inform historical reconsiderations of handicraft produced within a humanitarian socio-economic framework (to support humanitarian aims or fund-raising initiatives), and in turn explores how historical processes become materialised in contemporary humanitarian craftwork. By considering the possibilities for practice-based methods, this paper proposes the utility of involvement in craft-making processes for historians of humanitarianism. At the same time, this gives rise to a multiplicity of concerns for a contemporary craft practitioner undertaking a form of creative expression identifiable by its humanitarian purpose. It is therefore a helpful corrective to the temptation to think that experiments are innovations. Looking at early attempts in history we see a practice mirrored, not in the results, but in the process of working in a humanitarian mode of craft-based practice.</span></p> 2021-05-10T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2021 Rebecca Gill , Claire Barber , Bertrand Taithe Entangled Materialities 2021-02-16T13:15:53+01:00 Riikka Latva-Somppi Maarit Mäkelä Kristina Lindström Åsa Ståhl <p>This paper discusses craft and design practices through their impact on the environment. We consider how to act concerning the consequences of the craft and design industry. Also, we reflect on the agency of our field of practice in changing how we perceive the environment. We present three case studies of the European glass industry sites in Sweden, Italy and Finland, where we study contamination of the soil with participatory, speculative and craft methods. Through these cases, we reflect on our role in soil communities and ask how we may act in them with responsibility, hope and care. We conclude by proposing to act locally, to share our practices and make them visible, expanding our situated, personal skills and knowledge towards the political.</p> 2021-05-10T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2021 Riikka Latva-Somppi , Maarit Mäkelä , Kristina Lindström, Åsa Ståhl Manifestations of social resistance in craft processes 2021-02-16T12:58:00+01:00 Stefanía Castelblanco Pérez <p><span lang="NO-BOK" style="font-size: 11.0pt;">This paper aims to analyze craft objects that could contain inherent meanings of social, cultural, ecological or political resistance. The creative processes of makers from the Iku and Nasa indigenous peoples of Colombia and the Sami people of Sweden have been studied. The paper encompasses a theoretical reflection on the communicative capacity of objects and their implicit meanings as well as of the basic concepts of resistance and craft paired with a brief description of the Iku, Nasa and Sami indigenous peoples. An analysis of the manifestations that could be considered as resistance in the studied artisanal processes is brought forward through 11 interviews with artisans and the paper proposes a final reflection on how craft objects can have the capacity to communicate social, cultural, political and ecological resistance.</span></p> 2021-05-10T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2021 Stefanía Castelblanco Pérez Craft consumption and participatory consumerism 2021-02-16T12:15:48+01:00 Anneli Palmsköld <p><em>How are crafters, in this case hand knitters active on social media, involved in participatory consumerism and prosumption? This is the main question asked in this article, that explores the creative relations between craft consumers and the commodities they are searching for in order to be able to craft and to create. By using affect theory, and focusing on aspects as raw materials, tools, instructions and craft processes, the study is an exploration of how crafters engage in material conditions by using them to realize ideas and fantasies in craft.</em></p> 2021-05-10T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2021 Anneli Palmsköld You Have One New Message 2021-02-14T18:05:37+01:00 Bilge Merve Aktas <p class="FAAbstract"><span lang="EN-US">Knitting is often practiced as a group activity that takes place in the domestic environment. Besides the collectivity, using motifs with meanings has also facilitated communication between people. Building on these ideas, a workshop was designed to facilitate discussions about everyday concerns or experiences, both on personal and societal levels, to strengthen communication with the self and others. In the workshop, the thirteen participants were asked to design a motif to convey a message to themselves, to the group or to the society. Through a group discussion, the motifs stemming from personal experiences were knitted, shared and discussed. The topics emerging from the workshop indicates that knitting affords intimate exchanges between the self and others, and connects people by facilitating socio-political discussions, such as on environmental sustainability, women rights and self-development.</span></p> 2021-05-10T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2021 Bilge Merve Aktas Leder. Utdanning for ny praksis I 2020-12-31T17:18:11+01:00 Liv Merete Nielsen Arild Berg Peter Haakonsen Marius Lysebo Eva Lutnæs <p>Dette temanummeret av FormAkademisk er et resultat av fyrtårnsprosjektet <em>Didaktikk for teknologi, design og innovasjon</em> (2016-2020) som er finansiert av <em>Fakultet for Teknologi, kunst og design</em> (TKD) ved OsloMet–storbyuniversitetet og ledet av Liv Merete Nielsen. Prosjektet er et bidrag til realiseringen av regjeringens langtidsplan for forskning og høyere utdanning 2019–2028 (Kunnskapsdepartementet, 2018). Regjeringens opp­trappings­­planer inkluderer et teknologiløft, fornyelse og omstilling av nærings­livet og styrking av kvalitet i høyere utdanning. Fyrtårns­­prosjektet har som mål å bidra til å nå disse målene, fordi nøkkelen til ny praksis ligger i utdanning.</p> 2020-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 Opphavsrett 2020 Liv Merete Nielsen , Arild Berg , Peter Haakonsen , Marius Lysebo, Eva Lutnæs Leder. FormAkademisk med ny grafisk profil 2020-12-23T17:05:13+01:00 Janne Beate Reitan Tore André Ringvold <p class="FABrdtekst">I løpet av de siste årene har FormAkademisk hatt en prosess der vi har endret vår grafiske profil. Når vi nå også har endret malen for artiklene er det den siste brikken i et puslespill som begynte da Tore André Ringvold begynte å arbeide for FormAkademisk i 2016. Han er utdannet industridesigner fra England og har lang erfaring med grafisk design og markedskommunikasjon fra reklamebransjen. Arbeidet begynte med ny logo og nytt omslagsbilde for hvert nummer. Tanken bak den nye grafiske profilen er at den bedre skulle speile både den rollen og funksjonen som tidsskriftet har. Vi har etterstrebet at logoen formmessig skulle være klassisk, og samtidig tidsriktig. Hvert år vil få en egen farge, og hver utgave vil få et eget design. I den nye malen som nå er på plass, vil alle artiklene nå inneholde et omslagsbilde i venstre hjørne tilsvarende nummeret artikkelen hører til. Det er også med på å skape helhet i ‘systemet’.</p> 2020-12-24T00:00:00+01:00 Opphavsrett 2020 Janne Beate Reitan, Tore André Ringvold Editorial. Relating systems thinking and design VII 2020-12-02T16:26:32+01:00 Marie Davidová Ben Sweeting Birger Sevaldson <p>This special issue of <em>FormAkademisk</em> comprises a selection of articles developed from presentations at the seventh Relating Systems Thinking and Design (RSD7) symposium, held at Politecnico di Torino, Turin, October 23-26, 2018 (Barbero, 2018). RSD7 saw the launch of the Systemic Design Association (SDA), a membership organisation for the expanding community that has developed through the RSD conferences. The present issue is the second collection of articles from RSD7 to be published in <em>FormAkademisk</em> following the one released earlier this year (Davidova et al., 2020). These issues are the latest contributions to the ongoing relationship between the journal and the RSD conference series (Forlizzi et al., 2017; Hensel et al., 2019; Jones, 2014; Sevaldson, 2018; Sevaldson &amp; Ryan, 2014).</p> 2020-12-17T00:00:00+01:00 Opphavsrett 2020 Marie Davidová , Ben Sweeting, Birger Sevaldson Designing an Interdisciplinary Course in a Makerspace 2020-11-06T09:50:33+01:00 Arild Berg Tengel Aas Sandtrø Evin Güler Alfredo Carella Mali Norvalls Jenny Helene Haugen Thor Marius Lysebo <p class="FAAbstract"><span lang="EN-US">The study explored how to develop an elective, interdisciplinary course in a makerspace. The study highlighted the potentials and pitfalls in the transitional space between institutionalised and research-based higher education in relation to the free maker movement. The identified success criteria to set up an elective, interdisciplinary course in a makerspace were connected to the following central concepts: problem, practice, product, bodies of knowledge, critique, scientific discourse, methods, earlier knowledge, personal experience and organisational processes. The study showed how the makerspace elective course can contribute positively to student life by strengthening inclusion, a feeling of belonging, study enjoyment and interdisciplinarity skills in a professional setting. These qualities form a value-based conceptual framework for student active learning that can enable creativity and collaboration, which are essential twenty-first-century skills for a more sustainable society.</span></p> 2020-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 Opphavsrett 2020 Arild Berg, Tengel Aas  Sandtrø, Evin Güler, Alfredo Carella, Mali Norvalls, Jenny Helene Haugen Thor, Marius Lysebo Å støtte kreativitet 2020-12-02T10:37:22+01:00 Brynjar Olafsson <p>Denne artikkelen fokuserer på hva som kan støtte eller hindre lærere i kunst og håndverk i å fokusere på kreativitet i undervisningen. De siste årene har det vært rettet mer oppmerksomhet mot utvikling av barns kreative egenskaper i grunnskolen. Læreplanen i kunst og håndverksfaget legger større vekt på kreativitet enn andre fag. Resultatene fra åtte intervjuer viser at respondentene mener at faktorer som fagkunnskap, økonomi, ledelse og tid kan hemme lærere i å legge vekt på kreativitet i kunst og håndverk. Respondentene mente imidlertid at læreplanen var støttende ettersom den var åpen og fleksibel. De var også bevisste på at deres egen kreativitet påvirket elevenes arbeid. De fleste respondenter fant videre utfordringer i definisjonen av og arbeidet med å vurdere kreativitet. Resultatene viser at det er nødvendig å støtte både indre og ytre faktorer for undervisningen for å kunne oppfylle læreplanens mål om å utvikle elevers kreativi<em>tet. </em></p> 2020-12-13T00:00:00+01:00 Opphavsrett 2020 Brynjar Olafsson Editorial 2020-10-20T08:55:28+02:00 Camilla Groth Kirstine Riis Marte Sørebø Gulliksen <p>This special issue on embodied making and learning is dedicated to aspects of embodied cognition that goes on in the field of art, craft and design. The contributors to this issue were invited from the Embodied Making and Learning (EMAL) research group at the University of South-Eastern Norway, where aspects of learning in creative practices have been studied from many different angles throughout the institutions nearly 80 years existence, and amplified since the formation of the group in 2014. With its 50 members, divided into five thematic clusters related to embodied making and learning, this research group is one of the largest in the field. It involves both experienced and early career researchers, as well as experienced university teachers, from several disciplines.</p> 2020-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2020 Camilla Groth, Kirstine Riis, Marte Sørebø Gulliksen Makerspace – Flipped classroom og skapende prosesser 2020-11-17T16:33:51+01:00 Peter Haakonsen Gitte Skjønneberg <p>OsloMet Makerspace ble i 2019 introdusert i Faglærerutdanningen i design, kunst og håndverk ved Institutt for estetiske fag (EST) ved OsloMet som del av et utviklingsprosjekt. Makerspace ble her prøvd ut i undervisning på tredje studieår, og den teoretiske opplæringen tilbudt som flipped classroom. Sentrale premisser var studentaktiv undervisning og at emneplanens læringsutbyttebeskrivelser ble ivaretatt. Aktuelle læringsutbyttebeskrivelser sorteres i artikkelen under skapende prosesser, og diskuteres ut fra gjennomført- og erfart læreplannivå. Basert på observasjon, studentevalueringer og evaluerende samtale, framkommer det at gjennomføringen på et makerspace går raskt og produktene blir presise, noe som igjen gir produktene et profesjonelt uttrykk. Studien indikerer at makerspaces åpner opp for nye måter å ivareta læringsutbyttebeskrivelsene på. Det er samtidig relevant med kritisk refleksjon over kjennetegn på kvalitet på produktene når en ser forbi fascinasjonen studentene uttrykker over produktenes profesjonelle preg.</p> 2020-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 Opphavsrett 2020 Peter Haakonsen, Gitte Skjønneberg, Laila Belinda Fauske Virtual Reality in Design Processes 2020-11-26T16:56:31+01:00 Ingri Strand <p>Virtual Reality (VR) opens new possibilities in the fields of architecture, design and engineering. If combined with Building Information Modelling (BIM) or simpler 3D models, it could be possible to walk into buildings not yet built or to examine designed objects in three dimensions before they are made. This literature review examines studies in which VR was used in architecture, design and engineering as part of design processes. The review highlights promising benefits, such as increased understanding of complex issues concerning design tasks, size and dimensions. At the same time, several challenges are revealed, such as the inability of VR-systems to offer satisfactory functionalities for sketching and designing. Finally, the author discusses how VR can be implemented in relevant subjects in lower and upper secondary school.</p> 2020-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 Opphavsrett 2020 Ingri Strand E-textiles: An interdisciplinary approach 2020-11-13T17:35:14+01:00 Kari Saasen Strand Peter Haakonsen Laila Belinda Fauske <p>This article aims to shed light on e-textiles as a fusion of different skills. The empirical starting point is a workshop on e-textiles offered to a group of teachers attending a continuing education course in art and design. The study adopts self-ethnography. Using anonymous reflection notes from the workshop, the article discusses e-textiles as an arena to enhance problem solving through practical explorational work. This involves interdisciplinarity, crafting skills and computational thinking. Focusing on two categories, namely I) material knowledge and sustainability and II) electronics knowledge and interdisciplinarity, this study shows that time is an important factor when exploring e-textiles in an educational context. In e-textiles, crafting, circuitry, programming and sustainable thinking can be combined in an interdisciplinary and productive mash-up encouraging problem solving.</p> 2020-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 Opphavsrett 2020 Kari Saasen Strand, Peter Haakonsen, Laila Belinda Fauske "Det ekstra laget"- for en helhetlig undervisning 2020-11-10T10:36:13+01:00 Bente Helen Skjelbred <p class="FASammendragBrdtekst">Artikkelen belyser hvordan lærere i ungdomsskolen underviser for å gi elevene erfaring med observasjonstegning og forestillingstegning i Kunst og håndverk. Studien er en kvalitativ casestudie som bygger på observasjoner, intervjuer med lærere og studie av elevoppgaver. Studien bygger på Tyler (1949) sin teori om læringserfaring, og Eisner (1979) sin teori om læringsutbytte ligger til grunn for analyse av tegneundervisningen. Resultatene viser at lærerne planla for at elevene skulle få oppleve en kombinasjon av observasjonstegning og forestillingstegning, med læringserfaringer preget av kontinuitet, rekkefølge og integrasjon (Tyler, 1949). Selv om lærerne ikke oppfatter at læreplanen i Kunst og håndverk i LK06 vektlegger forestillingstegning i kompetansemål på ungdomstrinnet, legger de til rette for et åpent læringsutbytte. Dette gjør de med bakgrunn i at de ser verdien av elevenes forestillingsevne, fantasi og kreativitet, der elevene kan erfare det uforutsette i arbeid med tegning i tillegg til forhåndsdefinerte mål.</p> 2021-04-19T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2021 Bente Helen Skjelbred Integrative Systems of Production 2020-12-02T14:19:11+01:00 Tom Snow <p>Different branches of design are shifting from a primary focus on artefacts as ends to concentrating on means (e.g. forms of production), with ends encompassing larger societal goals. Concurrently, humanity is facing an increasingly carbon-and-freshwater-constrained world, combined with escalating realities of climate change and ecosystem degradation; thus, our means of production must evolve. An integrative framework and model has been developed to support designers (and other stakeholders) working on regenerative systems of production. The model integrates synergistic, circular, cascading and aggregate efficiency design systems based on ecosystem concepts, as well as regenerative agriculture, the bioeconomy and the (technical) circular economy. With this integrative approach, stakeholders may develop more productive, regenerative synergies and hybrid activities that produce zero waste. The model can be applied at the micro-, meso- and macro-scales.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Keywords: <br>Systemic design, ecological design, biomimetics, circular economy, regenerative agriculture.</p> 2020-12-17T00:00:00+01:00 Opphavsrett 2020 Tom Snow Multicentred Systemic Design Pedagogy Through Real-Life Empathy 2020-11-19T18:48:56+01:00 Marie Davidova <p>This article reflects on my integral design studio teaching and inclusiveness in its design processes. This is exemplified in two different systemic design case studies focusing on social and environmental justice via the lens of empathy. The design studio and/or design practice tend to be fused in this article because my design studios have always focused on practice-based, real-life built projects, while my commercial and not-for-profit practices have always implemented design education in real-life built projects through internships and/or other student participation. Therefore, my approach fully follows the pathway of ‘learning by doing’(Dewey, 1997), focusing on systemic feedback looping of integral real-life experience and reflection through research and practice, targeting brighter post-Anthropocene futures.</p> 2020-12-24T00:00:00+01:00 Opphavsrett 2020 Marie Davidova Perspectives on aesthetics and vulnerability through the life stories of five young men 2020-11-08T18:39:07+01:00 Marie Møller-Skau <p>This article examines what five young men in vulnerable positions tell about their experiences with aesthetics and actualises aesthetics in the context of health and life skills, emphasised in the Norwegian curriculum (2020). For research purposes, an interview with an indirect approach is used to gain insights into these young men’s experiences and lives by allowing them to fully play the roles as storytellers. According to the young men’s stories, their experiences with aesthetics can be presented through three categories of findings: (1) the connection between their life situations and aesthetics, (2) their emotional moments of aesthetic experiences and (3) their experiences of aesthetics as meaningful phenomena. Furthermore, the findings are discussed against aesthetic theory, which highlights how emotions can be experienced, reflected, symbolised, expressed and sorted out through aesthetics. Thus, a picture of aesthetic experiences is drawn as emotional processes.</p> 2021-04-19T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2021 Marie Møller-Skau Navigating methodological perspectives in Doctoral research through creative practice 2020-10-21T09:12:51+02:00 Kirstine Riis Camilla Groth <p>Academic research in crafts, conducted by crafts persons from an insider perspective and through practice-led approaches, is still just emerging and ways of conducting research is developing with each research project. Through this article, we try to navigate the field from a doctoral candidate’s perspective, presenting the research field and some central issues commonly confronted with in regards to epistemology, methodology and methods. We exemplify the arguments made through our own doctoral projects to make our points more concrete. The article discusses the methodological perspectives of these research projects, how and why they developed and changed over time and influences posed by outer circumstances. We especially point to the challenges and opportunities of practice-led research in crafts and highlight the relevance and type of contribution to be had and its meaningfulness for the practice field and related education.</p> 2020-10-02T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2020 Kirstine Riis, Camilla Groth Digitale ferdigheiter som ferdigrett eller råvare? 2020-11-01T16:03:14+01:00 Ingrid Holmboe Høibo Morten Henrik Lerpold <p>I det digitaliserte samfunnet i dag skjer ei betydeleg endring i læringa sine materielle føresetnader, frå konkrete og analoge læringsmiljø til digitale og virtuelle. Parallelt med den massive digitale satsinga i nordiske utdanningssystem har det vekse fram ei global rørsle kalla the maker movement. Denne artikkelen undersøker korleis rørsla kan bidra til ei breiare og fleirfasettert tilnærming til digital kompetanse i Kunst og handverk (KogH), enn den skjerm­tunge praksisen som til no har dominert. Gjennom studie av læreplanar, læringsteoriar, eigen praksis i feltet, praktiske døme og den stadig veksande ‘makerrørsla’, vert det undersøkt om utdanningssystemet i større grad burde støtte seg til den faglege og forskingsmessige kunn­skapen om kropp og materialet si rolle i barn si læring når viktige avgjersler om skuleutvikling og digitalisering av KogH-faget skal takast.</p> <p><em>Nøkkelord: <br></em>Digitale ferdigheiter, handverk, kroppsleg erkjenning, maker movement, demokrati.</p> 2020-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2020 Ingrid Holmboe Høibo, Morten Henrik Lerpold Relating systems thinking and design (VI) 2020-02-27T12:20:14+01:00 Marie Davidova Ben Sweeting Birger Sevaldson <p>This special issue of <em>FormAkademisk</em> comprises a selection of articles developed from presentations at the seventh Relating Systems Thinking and Design (RSD7) symposium, held at Politecnico di Torino, Turin,&nbsp;23th-26th October 2018 (Barbero, 2018). A second collection from RSD7 is also planned to be published in <em>FormAkademisk</em> during 2020, continuing the close relationship between the journal and the RSD conference series (Forlizzi, Sevaldson, &amp; Ryan, 2017; Hensel, Hensel, &amp; Sevaldson, 2019; Jones, 2014; Sevaldson, 2018; Sevaldson &amp; Ryan, 2014). The occasion of the RSD7 conference was especially important in the development of systemic design, being the occasion of the launch and founding meeting of the Systemic Design Association (SDA). The SDA will act as a membership organisation for the expanding community of practitioners and researchers that has developed through the RSD conferences.</p> 2020-01-24T00:00:00+01:00 Opphavsrett 2020 Marie Davidova Hvorfor elever mangler kompetente lærere i Kunst og håndverk 2020-01-06T14:08:44+01:00 Liv Merete Nielsen Janne Lepperød <p>Hele 50% av de lærerne som underviser i faget Kunst og håndverk i grunnskolen har ingen studiepoeng i faget. Det er et svakere resultat enn for 20 år siden, og da er det nærliggende å tro at det svake resultatet skyldes mangel på utdannede lærere i faget. Men slik er det ikke. &nbsp;I spørreundersøkelsen som blir presentert i denne artikkelen oppgir de som utdannet seg til faglærere i design, kunst og håndverk i perioden 2008-2018, at det er vanskelig å få ansettelse i skolen. Og dersom de får jobb i grunnskolen, så viser under­søkelsen at de ofte settes til andre oppgaver enn å undervise i Kunst og håndverk. Når lokale skoleledere unnlater å ansette og bruke kvalifiserte lærere, så får ikke elevene nyte godt av den lærerkompetansen som staten allerede har finansiert utdanningen til. &nbsp;</p> <p><em>Nøkkelord: </em>Kunst og håndverk, lærerutdanning, lærerkompetanse, skoleledere, ansettelse, grunnskolen</p> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 Opphavsrett 2019 Liv Merete Nielsen, Janne Lepperød Designing and Learning by Technological Mediation 2020-11-19T14:56:08+01:00 Nenad Pavel <p>In this article, an instrumental case study of a practical course in assistive technologies in cooperation between Norway and Brazil shows how patients, design students, and therapists participate in designing and learning. The study reveals how conception and reception of design play out through mediation processes between stakeholders and artifacts. The study was framed in light of Alain Findeli’s writings to challenge and inform current developments in design studio educational practices. To explain the solving of complex, ill-structured problems through design, Findeli proposed systems theory as a holistic philosophical perspective of the design process and design education. By asking what design is and how to teach it, I reiterate Findeli’s ideas on design and design education. This article emphasizes the ubiquitous effects of technology through relationalist ontology and postphenomenological perspectives. </p> 2021-04-19T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2021 Nenad Pavel Underlying the carver’s experience 2020-10-09T12:44:48+02:00 Marte Sørebø Gulliksen <p>Woodcarvers often report their experiences as having an intense internal focus, and feeling of a close connection to the material. This article explore key processes in cells and organs that underlies these experiences, emphasizing the sensorymotor modulation in cerebellum. The article has two aims: To bring neurobiological knowledge into the making disciplines to better understand the making process; To mediate terminological differences between disciplines and open up new research-based hypotheses and theoretical foundations for future interdisciplinary studies. Findings include three topics for further exploration: 1) The overflow of information in cerebellum and the maker’s experience of intense internal focus. 2) Cerebellum’s function as generator of deliberate actions without involving the conscious self and the so-called preconscious element of the maker’s negotiation. 3) The priority of neural circuits between sensory input and muscle output in Cerebellum at the cost of neural circuits to cerebral cortex’ monitoring and self-reflection and the maker’s experience as being close to the material. These findings expand upon previous knowledge developed in studies of making processes from sociocultural and philosophical point of view, and are useful for researchers and teachers interested in understanding and advancing the making disciplines and arts and craft education.</p> 2020-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2020 Marte Sørebø Gulliksen Tanatologiens poetikk 2020-10-20T16:35:44+02:00 Jadwiga Blaszczyk-Podowska <p class="FASammendragBrdtekst">Essayet har vært en måte å tolke mitt skapende arbeid på. Jeg tar utgangspunkt i egen kunstnerisk praksis, dvs. kunstnerisk utviklingsarbeid, og en fotografiserie med tittelen The Poetics of Thanatology. Teksten reflekterer over, og undersøker temaer som potensielt berøres gjennom fotografienes visuelle språk og den skapende prosessen. Jeg utforsker hvilke forbindelser som finnes mellom en hendelse i barndommen min, døden og fotografiet. Den antroposentriske tilnærmingen til virkeligheten sitter dypt i vår kultur og har skapt hierarkiske relasjoner - Vi og De andre. Gjennom stilleben-fotografi av døde planter og insekter undersøker jeg menneskets opplevelse av empati i forhold til ikke-menneskelige organismer. Jeg ser på mitt praktiske arbeid i fotostudio som et rom for kritisk refleksjon og som uerstattelige, meningsfulle og langsomme, sansende erfaringer. Disse erfaringene har utfordret min og mine kunststudenters antroposentriske tilnærming til verden.</p> 2020-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2020 Jadwiga Blaszczyk-Podowska More-than-human perspectives in understanding embodied learning 2020-10-09T12:44:47+02:00 Biljana Culibrk Fredriksen <p>Evner til å lære gjennom kroppslig samhandling med miljøer er iboende hos mennesker og andre arter, og sikrer artenes overlevelse. Ved å kombinere data fra studier fra erfaringslæring hos små barns og hos et føll (en nyfødt hest), viser forfatteren hvordan både mennesker og andre arter lærer gjennom kroppslige samhandling med sine omgivelser. Slike samhandlinger er avhengige av eget initiativ og utfordrer en rekke valg. Artikkelen argumenterer for kroppslig læring som avgjørende for overlevelse på tvers av arter. Den viser videre hvordan en slik forståelse av kroppslig læring kan motivere dekonstruksjon av dualismer mellom kroppslige og verbale læringsformer, og mellom menneske og andre arter, på denne måten kan bidra til en mer helhetlig forståelse av læring. I verden med mange økologiske utfordringer, kan kroppslige former for læring føre til økt økologisk bevissthet og kan bidra til utdanning for økologisk bærekraft.</p> 2020-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2020 Biljana Culibrk Fredriksen Narrativ strategi 2020-10-09T12:44:47+02:00 Ellen Kathrine Baskår <p>Faget kunst og håndverk har en lang tradisjon i norsk lærerutdanning og bygger på ulike målformuleringer, teoretiske forankringer og metodiske tilnærminger. I denne artikkelen vil jeg både rette oppmerksomheten på faget og på undervisningen i en nett- og samlingsbasert studieform. Jeg analyserer et empirisk materiale fra to gjennomførte undervisningsforløp med lærerstudenter i valgfaget kunst og håndverk innenfor en nett- og samlingsbasert studiemodell i lærerutdanningen. Det empiriske materialet bygger på observasjonsnotater fra et undervisningsforløp hvor narrativ strategi danner grunnlaget for aksjonsforskning. I analyse av datamaterialet anvender jeg, Jerome Bruner sitt prinsipp om spirallæring og Albert Bandura sin teori om modellæring som stedfortredende forsterkning.</p> 2020-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2020 ellen kathrine baskår Enigmatic epistemic things 2020-10-09T12:44:46+02:00 Anne Solberg <p>The aim of this article is to discuss epistemology, focusing on the epistemic role of artwork in research projects. Porcelaneous is the initial phase of a three-year artistic research project with an artistic component comprising the making of porcelain boards. The &nbsp;porcelain boards and the making process in this initial phase are used as examples from practice. At the core of the epistemological discussion is Hans-Jörg Rheinberger’s theory on experimental systems and epistemic things. Rheinberger advocates for an objective and practice-oriented approach rather than a theoretical approach to experimental research. In his setting, epistemic things are material. This article has concluded that Rheinberger’s theory is about attitudes rather than research methods and that this attitude to epistemological questions is relevant for artistic research.</p> 2020-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2020 Anne Solberg Å fange med blikket og kjenne med hendene 2020-10-09T12:44:48+02:00 Astrid Hus Kirstine Riis <p>Ei utstilling med konkrete produkt, kan gi studentar større nærleik til materiale og kunnskap om teknisk utføring enn ved å møte produkt gjennom visuelle og digitale presentasjonar. Å presentere konkrete produkt og materiale gjennom undervisningsbasserte utstillingar er eit kreativt grep og ei viktig støtte for undervisning og veiledning. Etter bruk av utstilling som didaktisk grep eit bestemt semester, vart det gjennomført ei undersøking der ti studentar svara på spørjeskjema om kva utbyte dei hadde hatt av utstillinga. Fleirtalet svar at dei hadde blitt inspirerte til eige arbeid og tileigna seg kunnskap både om materiale og teknikkar. Studien viser at å hente fram aktuelle produkt og presentere dei på ein god visuell måte, gir motivasjon til å være kreativ.</p> 2020-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2020 Astrid Hus Children’s sense-making through exploration 2020-12-02T11:17:08+01:00 Lovise Søyland <p>A child’s sense-making is grounded in his or her bodily interactions with the environment and tied to the body’s sensory experience. Digital technologies are being introduced into children’s learning environments and they experience virtual materialities to a greater extent now ever before. This study aimed to uncover how young children make sense of the world through explorative touch interactions with physical and virtual materialities. Children’s sense-making was studied through an explorative inquiry that was supported by video documentation. This article discusses how the combination of materials, digital technologies and experiences of different materialities offers new opportunities for explorative interaction, transforming and shaping children’s experience of the world through joint sensemaking. It also identifies how children’s past experience of material touch is important for them in their process of grasping virtual materiality.</p> <p>Keywords:<br>sense-making, touch interaction, virtual materiality, arts and crafts education, embodied cognition</p> 2020-09-25T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2020 lovise søyland Kvalitet og kunstnerisk kvalitet i kulturskolens fagplan for visuell kunst 2020-04-21T12:25:48+02:00 Mari-Ann Letnes <p>I denne artikkelen gjøres en kritisk diskursorientert lesning av kulturskolen rammeplan for å belyse hvordan begrepene <em>kvalitet</em> og <em>kunstnerisk kvalitet</em> opptrer i kulturskolens fagplan for visuell kunst. Hensikten med artikkelen er å bidra med kunnskap om hvordan sentrale tekster i kulturskolens kontekst i og gjennom språket former forståelser om kvalitetsbegrepet og kunstnerisk kvalitet. Når kvalitetsbegrepet bringes inn i kulturskolens kontekst er det interessant å undersøke ulike forståelser som deles og forhandles mellom kulturskolens aktører. Gjennom å analysere fagplanen for visuell kunst i lys av fagplanens høringsutkast, Norsk kulturskoleråds strategi 2020, generell del i <em>Rammeplan for kulturskolen :</em> <em>Mangfold og fordypning</em>, veiledning for lokalt rammeplanarbeid og hjemmesiden forsøker jeg å vise hvordan kvalitetsbegrepet og forståelse for <em>kvalitet</em> og <em>kunstnerisk kvalitet </em>løftes frem som et strategisk grep for å sikre god undervisning i kulturskolens mange klasserom.</p> 2020-04-20T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2020 Mari-Ann Letnes Design of an ecosystem to foster systemic eco-innovation 2020-02-27T12:19:24+01:00 Chiara Battistoni Silvia Barbero <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-GB">The current global environmental situation, with its interconnected problems, requires holistic approaches to provide a cultural paradigm shift and a different economy to overcome the linear one. Systemic Design (SD) can represent a solution creating opportunities for eco- and system innovation, especially in the manufacturing sector, which will soon face a revolution in the production model. Thus, SD can help achieve environmental and economic sustainability at the local level. A multiple case study analysis on SD projects was developed to understand the significant eco-entrepreneurial opportunities that have emerged and the barriers for their implementation. Finally, an ecosystem is designed to foster systemic innovation based on helix innovation models and identify the facilitator for its creation, namely, the ‘local systemic network booster’.</span></p> <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-GB">&nbsp;</span></p> 2020-01-28T00:00:00+01:00 Opphavsrett 2020 Chiara Battistoni, Silvia Barbero Editorial RSD5 2019-08-30T10:46:29+02:00 Michael Ulrich Hensel Defne Sunguroğlu Hensel Birger Sevaldson <p>The sixth Relating Systems Thinking and Design Symposium (RSD6 2017) was held at the Oslo School of Architecture and Design in Norway in October 2017. The central theme of the symposium was “Environment, Economy, Democracy: Flourishing Together”, and called for contributions on democratic participation and policy innovation, sustainable business innovation, flourishing communities, and related systems-thinking-oriented approaches to architecture, settlements and the built environment. A wide range of contributions addressed themes, such as social impact in flourishing and change programs, health and population wellness, ecological design and bioregion development, human-scaled and regional economies, related sociotechnical and technological systems, etc. Yet, while the five earlier symposia did receive a number of papers that were focused on architecture and urban design, RSD6 was the first RSD symposium with a dedicated paper session on architecture and urban design. This special issue of Formakademisk collects together five of the papers that focus on architecture and urban design from a linked systems-thinking and design-thinking perspective. Each article pursues a distinct theme concerning the development of the profession, performance-oriented architecture and urban design, the role of exterior space in rethinking the architectural envelope, and questions of participation and community building. This breadth of themes in the selected articles indicates the increasingly deep impact of systems-thinking in the fields of architecture and urban design.</p> 2019-07-17T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2019 Michael Ulrich Hensel, Defne Sunguroğlu Hensel , Birger Sevaldson Synergy in the systemic approach to architectural performance 2020-02-27T12:18:58+01:00 Marie Davidova <p>This article integrates a series of diverse projects that together exemplify and interpret the Systemic Approach to Architectural Performance (SAAP) that has been developed by the author. SAAP is a fusion of several process-based fields and their media and agency, namely: a) Systems oriented design; b) Performance oriented architecture; 3) Prototypical urban interventions; d) Time-based design; e) Service design; and f) Co-design, co-creation and DIY. The article presents SAAP’s relations to these fields and concludes with their integration and synergy in a ‘Real Life Co-Design Laboratory’, where collaborative and collective processes are seen as the resulting design objects or rather, objectives.</p> 2020-01-28T00:00:00+01:00 Opphavsrett 2020 Marie Davidova Leverage analysis 2020-02-27T12:19:49+01:00 Ryan Murphy Peter Jones <p>Many systemic design processes include the development and analysis of systems models that represent the issue(s) at hand. In causal loop diagram models, phenomena are graphed as nodes, with connections between them indicating a control relationship. Such models provide mechanisms for stakeholder collaboration, problem finding and generative insight and are powerful . These functions are valued in design thinking, but the potential of these models may yet be unfulfilled. We introduce the notion of “leverage measures” to systemic design, adapting techniques from social network analysis and systems dynamics to uncover key structures, relationships and latent leverage positions of modelled phenomena. We demonstrate their utility in a pilot study. By rethinking the logics of leverage, we make better arguments for change and find the place from which to move the world.</p> 2020-01-28T00:00:00+01:00 Opphavsrett 2020 Ryan Murphy, Peter Jones The Art of Hosting Participatory Practices in Social Labs: Moving Beyond Participation to Deep Engagement 2020-12-02T11:09:54+01:00 Rosamund Mosse Lewis Muirhead <p>Working with diverse groups to address complex issues is the primary aim of the burgeoning field of social labs. This paper investigates how the Art of Hosting (AoH) helped the facilitation team at New Brunswick’s Social and Public Innovation Lab (NouLAB) to build trust and integrate the wisdom of the participants into the lab process. We argue that AoH provided a container for the deep understanding and changes in perspective experienced by participants in the first two cycles of the lab. This study may be of use to those planning multi-stakeholder engagements and working in complex problem spaces.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Keywords:</p> <p>Social innovation labs, Art of Hosting, participatory practices, public sector innovation, dialogic organizational development.</p> 2020-12-17T00:00:00+01:00 Opphavsrett 2020 Rosamund Mosse Design for Relations 2020-12-02T13:12:38+01:00 Athina Stamatopoulou <p>The city, composed of heterogeneous relations, is an open complex system, beyond its physicality. Questioning analysis and design, a work-in-progress methodology of a generative mapping negotiating different kinds of design logics is presented. The methodology is composed of (1) data gathering; (2) investigating relations among data; and (3) testing with two cases elicited from Athens Center public space. The focus is on how such a relational-thinking methodology cultivates design logics through design­ing by analyzing; designing by defining frame(s); designing the program; designing as an interventional strategy in/through interdependencies; designing by intervening with territorial forces; and employing intra-parametric strategies. By enforcing emergence and management of complexities in diverse fields of potential application, the methodology negotiates the limits and the ways of design.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Keywords:</p> <p>Systemic urban design, relational design, relational territorialities, relationally generated complexity; design methodology; open method; diagrammatic mapping</p> 2020-12-17T00:00:00+01:00 Opphavsrett 2020 Athina Stylianos Stamatopoulou Wicked problems, wicked play 2020-02-27T12:20:40+01:00 Dulmini Perera <p>Design methods need to reconsider ways to avoid othering messiness (or what appears to be contradictory or nonsensical) within wicked problem situations, particularly crisis sites. As such, this paper suggests that play frames (defined as Fun Machines) can be utilised as situated strategies that designers can apply to address paradoxes and contradictions. The paper presents the theoretical framework for a Fun Machine by focusing on second-generation design methods and how they facilitate conversation, while simultaneously exploring an often-neglected playful aspect of conversation that is usually found in fun-making. The applications of a Fun Machine are discussed in the historical context (Cedric Price’s Fun Palace) and with a pilot project conducted at a contemporary crisis site (Dessau).</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2020-01-24T00:00:00+01:00 Opphavsrett 2020 Dulmini Perera Applying a Systemic Approach to Gender Transport Poverty 2020-12-02T21:52:35+01:00 Komal Faiz Andree Woodcock Deana McDonagh Sana Iqbal <p>Transport poverty and the associated levels of deprivation experienced by women is a ‘wicked problem'. A systemic approach is needed to address entrenched societal and cultural norms that deprive women of equality and agency. The conceptual shift from ‘transport’ to ‘mobility’, emphasising access to life opportunities, provides an opportunity for more systems approaches to be tried. The ‘WEMOBILE project’ addressed gender transport poverty in Low-Middle-Income Countries using ethnographic and empathic design approaches to understand and re(present) the effects of gender transport poverty. This article focusses on insights provided by employing a systemic design to data gathered in Pakistan. In represent­ting data as system maps, gaps that hinder the effectiveness of existing solutions are emphasised as well as the usefulness of this approach in highlighting opportunities for policy and opera­tional changes.</p> <p> </p> <p><em>Keywords: <br /></em>Empathy, gender-sensitive transport, systems-thinking, Low-Middle-Income Countries, Pakistan.</p> 2020-12-17T00:00:00+01:00 Opphavsrett 2020 Andree Woodcock, Komal Faiz, Deana McDonagh, Punnal Faiz, Sana Iqbal Ecosystem Metabolisms and Functions 2020-12-02T14:18:14+01:00 Tom Snow <p>The framework and model describe ecosystem functions. Working within and towards systems of production that intend to be truly circular and regenerative necessitates that designers (and other stakeholders) have an increased understanding and intuition of how ecosystems function—an eco-literacy. To this end, the framework is based on foundational metabolisms (producers, consumers and decomposers), and their interactions with each other and ‘nutrient pools’ within their collective environment. The model proposes that ecosystems are fractals of plants and are one collective metabolism. Some ‘ecosystem concepts’ are also developed that can be worked with as they are or used as a base for analogies for those working directly with, or developing frameworks for, integrative systems of production.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> <br>Systemic design, ecological design, biomimetics, circular economy, systems ecology.</p> 2020-12-17T00:00:00+01:00 Opphavsrett 2020 Tom Snow In proportion 2020-02-27T12:18:32+01:00 Luke Feast <p>Avoiding the worst impacts of global warming is a matter of systemic change and political will. An easily adaptable political system would be resilient to the effects of climate change, since a government could maintain effective control by implementing incremental changes. However, except for the United Kingdom (UK), Israel and New Zealand, all other states have rigid codified constitutions. Drawing on cybernetics and variety engineering, the study of New Zealand’s constitutional system presented in this article suggests that a rigid codified constitution has merits for addressing long-term problems, such as climate change and sustainable development.</p> <p>Cover image photo: <span style="font-size: 11.0pt;" lang="EN-US">Christoph Strässler</span></p> 2020-01-28T00:00:00+01:00 Opphavsrett 2020 Luke Feast Hvor var det det butta, hvor er det blitt av alle gutta? 2019-09-24T10:48:59+02:00 Ingvard Bråten Jorunn Spord Borgen <p>I denne artikkelen søker vi svar på hvilke kjønns- og likestillingsrelaterte utfordringer kunst og håndverk står overfor i dag. Vi ser på faget, lærerne og elevene som historiske aktører, som på ulike måter kan bidra til å vedlikeholde eller endre kjente historiske trekk ved faget. Dette gjør vi i lys av sosiologen Pierre Bourdieu, som påpeker at skolen som samfunnsinstitusjon gjerne reproduserer historiske oppfatninger og inndelinger i samfunnet. Ved hjelp av den didaktiske trekant som analyseverktøy undersøker vi hvordan læreplaner, institusjonelle praksiser og debatter har preget faget fram mot i dag. Gjennom artikkelen reiser vi en del spørsmål og peker på kunnskapsbehov i faget.</p> 2019-09-23T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2019 Ingvard Bråten, Jorunn Spord Borgen Leder. Finansiell støtte til FormAkademisk 2019-08-07T12:10:28+02:00 Janne Beate Reitan <p><em>FormAkademisk sender i disse dager ut brev om finansiell støtte for de kommende årene til institusjoner som i stor grad bruker tidsskriftet som publiseringskanal.</em></p> <p>FormAkademisk er det eneste vitenskapelige tidsskriftet i Norden som publiserer artikler innen alle de fagområder som Profesjonsråd for designutdanning og Profesjonsråd for arkitektur- og landskapsarkitekturutdanning i Universitets- og høgskolerådet (UHR) dekker. I tillegg publiserer FormAkademisk artikler innen designdidaktikk fra barnehage til doktorgrad. Profesjonsråd for designutdanning sin støtte, som ble vedtatt på deres møte 13.oktober 2008 var svært viktig under etableringen av tidsskriftet og i prosessen mot vitenskapelig godkjenning på nivå 1 i 2008 og når tidsskriftet nå feirer sitt 10-års jubileum er støtten minst like viktig. FormAkademisk er også blitt nominert av Profesjonsråd for designutdanning til nivå 2 i Norsk vitenskapsindeks (NVI).</p> 2019-03-04T00:00:00+01:00 Opphavsrett 2019 Janne Beate Reitan Bokanmeldelse: Boka om kunst og håndverk i barnehagen 2019-08-07T12:10:35+02:00 Ingvard Bråten <p><em>Boka om kunst og håndverk i barnehagen</em> har vokst fram ved kunst og håndverksmiljøet ved Dronning Mauds Minne Høgskole for barnehagelærerutdanning (DMMH) i Trondheim. Dette er en grunnbok som skal gi en kunst og håndverksfaglig kunnskapsbase til studenter i kunnskaps­området Kunst, kultur og kreativitet i barnehagelærerutdanningen. Videre henvender boka seg til ansatte i barnehagen. Ved siden av de tre redaktørene, Frisch, Letnes og Moe, har Vigdis Dagsdatter Øien skrevet ett kapittel.</p> 2018-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 Opphavsrett 2018 Ingvard Bråten Editorial. Design and Cultural Diversity 2019-08-07T12:10:32+02:00 Astrid Skjerven <p>By raising the theme of&nbsp; Design and Cultural Diversity in this special issue of <em>FormAkademisk</em> we hope to stimulate a broad cross disciplinary discussion on the interplay of cultures within the field of design and design education. The main dimensions of the topic might be summarized as:</p> <p>- The dimensions and meanings of cultural diversity<br>- Politics and power<br>- Transmission and transition of cultures<br>- Heritage and innovation<br>- Indigenous and vernacular traditions versus fashion and euro-centered attitudes<br>- Design and learning approaches</p> <p>These matters are complex, deeply interwoven and interdependent. This series of articles discusses how design might support an innovative development that takes care of diverse traditions and attitudes, supports equality and peaceful co-existence.</p> 2019-01-07T00:00:00+01:00 Opphavsrett 2019 Astrid Skjerven Building making scholarship 2019-08-07T12:10:33+02:00 Liv Merete Nielsen <p>Artikkelen beskriver hvordan forskning innen skapende profesjonsfag har blitt drevet fram av professor Halina Dunin-Woyseth. Med bakgrunn som arkitekt har hun hatt et innsideperspektiv på de utfordringene de skapende profesjonsfagene sto overfor. Som en av de få arkitekter som også hadde doktorgrad fikk hun ansvar for utviklingen av doktorgradsprogrammet på Arkitektur- og designhøgskolen i Oslo (AHO). Hun utviklet kunnskapskonseptene ‘the making professions’ og ‘the making disciplines’ for å synliggjøre og håndtere de skapende profesjonenes utfordringer som selvstendige forskbare (researchable) fagfelt i møte med etablerte akademiske disipliner. I 1995 sto hun sentralt i avgjørelsen om å åpne doktorprogrammet på AHO for designere og designdidaktikere, noe som har spilt en avgjørende rolle for framveksten av et designdidaktisk forskningsfelt i Norge. Innsatsen til Dunin-Woyseth går langt ut over det å være én persons innsats, den eksemplifiserer hvordan utdanning og forskning med et innsideperspektiv på kunnskapsutvikling har avgjørende betydning for et demokrati der også representanter for praktiske profesjoner må kunne artikulere sin innsidekunnskap med akademisk troverdighet. Framhevingen av et innsideperspektiv (Ryle, 1945) og viktigheten av aktive fagmiljøer (Becher &amp; Trowler, 2001) setter også Halina Dunin-Woyseths innsats inn i et større perspektiv. Hun har høstet internasjonal anerkjennelse både som teoretiker og feltbygger.</p> 2018-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 Opphavsrett 2018 Liv Merete Nielsen Architecture as a system and innovation design discipline 2019-08-30T10:45:13+02:00 Christos Chantzaras <p>Talking about architecture means talking not only about buildings but also about processes or systems. In the latter context, architecture is a way of thinking and looking at people, spaces, interrelations and interactions. Proclaimed by IDEO’s Tim Brown as one of the best system design forms of education available, architecture has potential in fields beyond the physical. In keeping with the views of renowned systems thinker Russell Ackoff, who graduated in architecture before focusing on operations research, the question arises whether the skills of architects can be applied more broadly in system and innovation design. This paper describes how architects deal with context and complexity from the perspective of the practice-oriented architectural programming method. From its early days in the 1960s, it offered architects a viable basis for an applied architectural design thinking method, but did not receive widespread attention from practitioners and academics. The method is critically assessed and compared to the known forms of design thinking from the viewpoint of industrial design. By describing a real-life project and students’ work from a newly created seminar in a department of architecture, the paper investigates the current and future relevance of an advanced version of architectural programming for architectural practice and education. It stresses the desirability of reinforcing the core skills of architects by developing a design thinking method rooted in architecture, which needs to be taught, developed and disseminated. In the long term, it is argued, architecture should be considered and integrated as a ‘systems and innovation design discipline’ in the fields of systems thinking and innovation research.</p> 2019-08-05T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2019 Christos Chantzaras Performance-oriented architecture and urban design 2019-08-30T10:46:04+02:00 Michael Ulrich Hensel Søren S. Sørensen <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-GB">This article discusses a performance-oriented approach to architectural and urban design that seeks to intensify the interaction between architectures and their specific settings and environments. The overarching aim is to expand performance-oriented design in architecture to urban design and to integrate architectural, urban design and landscape design into a multi-scalar and multi-domain approach. This effort is currently comprised of three distinct research by design efforts: [i] designs for urban areas with a focus on demographic and environmental aspects, [ii] designs for peripheral areas with a focus on preserving or restoring vital local bio-physical conditions and interrelations, and [iii] designs for rural areas that elaborate an integrative approach towards constructions and correlating land uses. In order to facilitate this approach, computational information-based design is linked with systems-thinking. The portrayed research was undertaken at the Research Centre for Architecture and Tectonics and the Advanced Computational Design Laboratory at the Oslo School of Architecture and Design over a period of five years from 2014 to 2018.</span></p> 2019-07-17T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2019 Michael Ulrich Hensel, Søren S. Sørensen Samskaping til glede og besvær 2020-04-07T12:36:35+02:00 Monika Hestad Steinar Killi <p>Samskaping er ikke et nytt fenomen, men utfordringer rundt eierskapet virker å tilspisses. Hvordan kan forskjellige samskapingsprosesser vurderes utfra et designfaglig perspektiv? Bakteppet er rettsakene rundt et av de mest kjente artefaktene i Norge: Il Tempo Gigante, først brukt i filmen Flåklypa Grand Prix, siden i mange flere sammenhenger før Hunderfossen Familiepark introduserte berg- og dalbanen Il Tempo Extra Gigante. Artikkelen presenterer forslag til hvordan en samskapingsprosess kan vurderes, gjennom fire linser; opprinnelse, prosess, gjenkjennelse og eierskap.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> 2020-04-07T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2020 Steinar Killi, Monika Hestad Relating Systems Thinking and Design IV 2019-08-07T12:10:51+02:00 Birger Sevaldson <p>The fourth special issue of FormAkademisk on the theme of Systemic Design features articles from RSD5 2016 held at OCADU, Toronto October 13 to 15. The themes of these five full papers are covering development of the design field at large, methodology development and practice of learning and education. The other main thread in this issue is sustainability, circular economy and urban co living strategies.</p> <p>The special issue follows after the publication of the RSD5 proceedings , containing videos, abstracts and working papers from the conference. In these full papers the themes form the presentations and working papers are developed further. The proceedings are found at:</p> <p><a href=""><em></em></a></p> <p>Parallel to this special issue a Springer Book is published with Peter Jones as editor presenting an additional set of selected papers.</p> <p>Following the three former special issues it is fair to state that systemic design has developed beyond the initial point where it was still unclear what the notion of Systemic Design was covering and how it should be developed. The current issue demonstrates that systemic design has a wide reach and depth in its explorations.</p> <p>Cover image by <span lang="NO-BOK" style="font-size: 11.0pt; font-family: 'Calibri',sans-serif; color: #1f497d;">Elisabeth Bjørndal Skjelten.</span></p> 2018-10-18T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2018 Birger Sevaldson FormAkademisk 10 år – med forskning på design og designdidaktikk 2019-08-07T12:08:55+02:00 Janne Beate Reitan <p><em>FormAkademisk</em> – <em>forskningstidsskrift for design og designdidaktikk</em> fyller 10 år omtrent på denne tida. I 2017 feira vi 10. årgang og i år er det 10 år siden den første redaksjonen starta sitt arbeid.</p> 2018-10-08T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2018 Janne Beate Reitan Editorial. Drawing in Artistic Research – Whence and Wherefore? 2019-08-07T12:08:53+02:00 Theodor Barth <p>The topic of this special issue of FormAkademisk is <em>drawing</em>. While the issue is hosted by the Oslo National Academy of the Arts (KHiO), the contributors have come in from different urban locations in Norway, including Volda, Trondheim, Bergen and Oslo. <em>We would like to use this occasion to extend our thanks to the external peer-reviewers</em>. They have helped in bringing the issue to its present level of quality</p> 2018-10-08T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2018 Theodor Barth Tegneundervisning og (poly)tekniske idealer 2019-08-07T12:08:52+02:00 Mathilde Sprovin <p><em>Tegneskolen i Christiania ble opprettet i 1818. I undervisningen stod tegneopplæring sentralt. Fra oppstarten i 1818 var dette etter modell fra de europeiske kunstakademiene. Dette endret seg mot slutten av 1800-tallet, i takt med den teknologiske utviklingen i Europa som satte nye krav til tegnefaget. Idealene ble hentet fra École Polytechnique i Paris. </em></p> 2018-10-08T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2018 Mathilde Sprovin Industrial heritage as a culturally sustainable option in urban transformation 2019-08-07T12:10:39+02:00 Grete Swensen Joar Skrede <p>Industrial heritage represents an opportunity for architects and designers to combine a building’s robust form with creative solutions. A former methanol factory in Skien used as art hall, and a former paper mill in Moss used as a music venue, exemplify the ways in which cultural provisions for a diverse urban population can be accommodated. We examined the kinds of cultural provisions industrial buildings offer and how industrial heritage’s tolerance level is met. The results are discussed in light of the societal responsibility to find long-lasting, sustainable solutions in urban development.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2018-12-17T00:00:00+01:00 Opphavsrett 2018 Grete Swensen, Joar Skrede Hvordan øke bevisstheten om den førspråklige dimensjonen av det kroppslige nærværet i tegning? 2019-08-07T12:08:45+02:00 Christian Montarou <p><em>I tillegg til dialogen som organismen fører med den ytre verden ved hjelp sansene, finnes det under tegneprosessen en uartikulert førspråklig kobling mot de stimuli, som kommer fra den «ikke synlige» indre fornemmende kroppen. Forskningsspørsmålet jeg har valgt å arbeide med i artikkelen er: Hvordan øke bevisstheten om den førspråklige dimensjonen av det kroppslige nærværet i tegning? Dette undersøkes gjennom Merleau Ponty sin tenkning rundt kroppsfenomenologi, Derrida sitt syn på tegneren som blind, psykolog Stern sin tenkning om vitalitetsaffekt. Likeledes inspirasjon fra forskere som </em><em>Petitmengin med sin mikrofenomenologiske metode, Berger sin pedagogiske tenkning og studier av kroppens rolle i vitenskapelig forskning og ulike forfattere innen kroppskognisjon teori som fremhever betydningen av det førspråklig i tenkning. Forskningsspørsmålet vil også bli belyst ut fra min erfaring som kunstner og som tegnelærer på Institutt for landskapsarkitektur ved NMBU</em></p> 2018-10-08T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2018 Christian Montarou Experimental psychology and visual artwork 2019-08-07T12:08:46+02:00 Stine Vogt <ol> <li class="p1 show"><span class="s1"><em>This article explores ways in which modern experimental psychology can provide information about aspects of the processes involved in the creation of visual art. Many areas of research in the fields of neuroscience and cognitive neuropsychology yield information that can be used to develop techniques to benefit the production of art. Several phenomena are discussed to provide a comprehensive perspective on the psychological, behavioural and physiological processes that influence the creation of artwork. </em></span></li> </ol> <p class="p1"><span class="s1"><strong><em>Keywords</em></strong><em>: paradoxical facilitation, cognitive psychology, system 1, system 2, verbal overshadowing, perceptual constancy, categorical, coordinate, TMS</em></span></p> 2018-10-08T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2018 Stine Vogt Instruktion av hantverkstekniker i slöjden 2019-12-17T11:02:08+01:00 Joakim Andersson <p>Utgångspunkt i denna artikel är två slöjdlärares kommunikation med sina elever i årskurs 6 i den svenska grundskolans slöjdundervisning. Som metod för att dokumentera användandet av olika kommunikationsformer och kommunikativa resurser används videoinspelade klassrums­observationer samt stimulated recall. Slöjdämnet är ett kommunikativt ämne på flera sätt, dels genom möjligheten till både verbala- och icke verbala instruktioner och observationer av andras görande, dels genom användandet av material och den utrustning som finns tillgänglig i salen. Fokus i analysarbetet är slöjdlärarens olika val av kommunikationsform och kommunikativa resurs vid en instruktion. Studien belyser slöjdlärarens möjligheter att skapa förståelser genom ett didaktiskt medvetet val av kommunikationsform och kommunikativ resurs i instruktionens olika delar.</p> 2019-12-16T00:00:00+01:00 Opphavsrett 2019 Joakim Andersson Make it NOW! – Learning, Exploring and Understanding 2019-08-07T12:08:57+02:00 Marte Sørebø Gulliksen Siri Homlong Mari-Ann Letnes Jaana Lepistõ Anniken Randers-Pehrson <p><em>This issue of FormAkademisk features selected articles developed from papers presented at the Make it NOW</em><em>! Learning, Exploring and Understanding conference in Rauma, Finland, September 28-30, 2016</em><em>. This NordFo conference was organized by Rauma Unit of Turku University´s Department of Teacher Education. NordFo is a Nordic forum, supported by NordPlus, which since the 1980s has worked towards initiating, stimulating and reporting research and development work within the subject art and craft, textile work and woodwork and the teacher education in these subjects in the Nordic countries. The conference Make it NOW! aimed to “…provide an arena for discussions on craft, design and technology as an innovative combination of knowledge and skills related to eco-social values in altering the world according to human needs and wants”</em> (International NordFo Conference in Rauma, 2016). <em>This special issue of FormAkademisk</em><em> called for articles with an emphasis on the theme Researching embodied making and learning – New methodological vistas on Making, however this did not exclude papers from other sessions. Additionally, this issue contains </em><em>two </em><em>other, </em><em>independent articles that fit</em><em> this special issue’s scope. </em></p> 2018-05-16T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2018 Marte Sørebø Gulliksen, Siri Homlong, Mari-Ann Letnes, Jaana Lepistõ, Anniken Randers-Pehrson Når tilskueren tegner 2019-08-07T12:08:35+02:00 Hilde Kramer <p><em>Etter 2. verdenskrig har vitnebeskrivelser og fotografier dominert spredningen av kunnskap om holocaust. Bakgrunnen for artikkelen er utfordringer rundt formidling av disse hendelsene i vår tid. Innledningsvis poengteres viktigheten av å opprettholde formidling av holocaust. Teksten henter eksempler fra resepsjonsteori, og etterspør nye måter å fremme tilskuerens aktive engasjement. Den historiske bakgrunnen forklares. Gjennom en serie workshoper utprøves en fenomenologisk tilnærming gjennom tegning for å minnes ofre av holocaust. Tre eksempler fra workshopene viser ulike deltakeres tilnærming, samt mulige utfordringer. Resultater av workshopene, observasjoner og tilbakemeldinger diskuteres underveis. Artikkelen vil ta opp utfordringer ved prosjektet og mulige feilkilder man kan støte på. </em><em>Observasjoner av og tilbakemeldinger fra deltakerne i workshopene ser ut til å bekrefte at en innpakket stein med et nummer fungerte forløsende for flertallet fra posisjonen som passiv betrakter til aktiv, etterforskende tegner.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong><em>Nøkkelord: </em></strong>kunstnerisk utviklingsarbeid, tegning, holocaust, deltakerbasert minnekultur, formidlingsmetoder, resepsjonsteori</p> 2018-10-09T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2018 Hilde Kramer Envelopes and exteriority 2019-08-30T10:46:54+02:00 Sareh Saeidi <p>This article discusses the relationship of architecture to its surrounding environment. The objective of the article is i) to reposition the relationship of architecture and its surrounding exterior by expanding the understanding of architectural envelopes, and ii) to systematically define exterior space as design input. The notion of the envelope encompasses a spatial recognition defined by interactions between interior and exterior environments that affects an inhabitant’s experience of architectural space. This research is organised in three sections: a) a literature review to systematically examine the terminologies of this research, b) selected case studies that consider exteriority as a design criterion, and c) research through design inquiry to combine a systematic approach with design thinking. The study applies both conceptual and method-oriented approaches to develop an integrated design approach focused on the climatic and atmospheric performances of architectural envelopes.</p> 2019-06-05T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2019 Sareh Saeidi Derakhshi Landscape of participatory city makers 2019-08-30T10:44:47+02:00 Jotte Ilbine Jozine Charlotte de Koning Emma Puerari Ingrid Mulder Derk Loorbach <p>Today, citizens, professionals, civil servants, social enterprises, and others form different types of coalitions to overcome the challenges facing our modern cities. In this paper, the particularities of these types of groups are characterised and categorised into ten different types of city makers. Generally, these types of city makers bring value to cities, but we conclude that this value could be enriched through more participatory approaches that stimulate crossovers and accelerate the transition towards sustainable futures. Therefore, we characterise the different identified types as potential ‘participatory’ city makers. However, these participatory approaches and the networks between them still need to be developed, while improving conditions and dynamics that can enable and enhance innovation in urban environments. Design and systems thinking could contribute valuable methods and perspectives to the development of these participatory and systemic approaches. Finally, the categorisation presented in this paper must enable a better understanding of the transformative capacity of these different types of city makers, necessary for flourishing and sustainable communities.</p> <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-GB">&nbsp;</span></p> 2019-08-12T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2019 Jotte Ilbine Jozine Charlotte de Koning, Emma Puerari, Ingrid Mulder, Derk Loorbach Crafting futures in Lebanese refugee camps 2019-08-30T10:45:39+02:00 Helen Avery Nihal Halimeh <p>The initiative at the Burj El Barajneh camp is run by a network of local associations and aims at improving living conditions, services, infrastructure and livelihoods for the inhabitants. Burj El Barajneh has a large number of active associations and many highly educated professionals. However, in this complex hyperdense context, any kind of change needs to be carefully considered; there are no simple recipes, and existing professional expertise does not necessarily match the specific conditions of the locality.&nbsp;By working with collective design and collaboration between the camp's inhabitants, it becomes possible to envisage larger coordinated efforts and to solve issues that remain blocked at an individual level.</p> 2019-08-05T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2019 Helen Avery, Nihal Halimeh Understanding culture as a project 2020-11-05T21:35:01+01:00 Renata M. Leitão Solen Roth <p>This article argues that, in collaboration with Indigenous [and non-Western local] communities, social designers should approach “culture” not only as a form of heritage that should be preserved and transmitted, but also as a project that weaves together heritage, current material circumstances, and desirable ideas for the future. We therefore examine the notion that every culture is intrinsically oriented towards the future, representing a trajectory that links the past to a projected ideal of well-being. Thus, cultural diversity leads to numerous trajectories and distinct futures, contrary to the colonial ideology according to which only one trajectory is possible: that which adheres to the project of eurocentric modernity. Based on a participatory research action project called Tapiskwan, which focused on the aspirations of the Atikamekw Nehirowisiwok, we propose that the ultimate goal of social designers should be to nurture local communities’ capacity to (re)create their own autonomous trajectories, in pursuit of the good life as their culture defines it. </p> 2020-12-24T00:00:00+01:00 Opphavsrett 2020 Renata M. Leitão, Solen Roth Striper 2019-08-07T12:08:42+02:00 Arild Berg Karen Disen <p>Striper blir i denne studien undersøkt gjennom Friedrich Schillers konsepter om menneskets tre grunndrifter i form; formdrift, stoffdrift og lekedrift. Schillers teoretiske begreper brukes til å fokusere på forskning om form i forhold til menneskets trang og ønske om å forme. Gjennom å vise konkrete eksempler av striper som er materialisert på ulike måter i kunst og design viser artikkelen hvordan Schillers begreper kan brukes til å øve studenter og lærere i design- og kunstutdannelse til å se egen og andres praksis gjennom et kunstteoretisk blikk, og slik gi økt forståelse for sammenheng mellom teori og praksis.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2018-10-09T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2018 Arild Berg, Karen Disen Drawing as performance 2019-08-07T12:11:01+02:00 Theodor Barth <p><em>The objective of the present article is to re-work and radically reframe a case study on drawing presented at the E&amp;PDE conference, hosted by OsloMet in the early autumn of 2017. The case study was experimental – involving a drawer, </em><em>a furniture designer, an MA student (at the time) and an anthropologist. The present article ventures to draw certain learning outcomes from the experiment. These are presently relevant in the context of the heritage of a drawing school founded in 1818 and in the wake of the current activities in artistic research (AR) at the Oslo National Academy of the Arts (KHiO). The focus is on the educational aspects of ‘doing research’. The article queries the relation between drawing, writing and field research in the history of the school and currently in AR.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Keywords</em>:</strong> drawing, writing, field research, process, reframing, case study, comparison, first science, third-party readability, non-philosophy.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2018-10-09T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2018 Theodor Barth Profesjonskunnskap: fag, forskning og praksiserfaring 2020-11-27T12:35:55+01:00 Laila Belinda Fauske <p>Rammeplan for 5-årig lærerutdanning i praktiske og estetiske fag ble vedtatt juni 2020. For design, kunst og håndverk innebærer dette at 3-årig faglærerutdanning med master opphører. Lærerutdanningen skal være både forskningsbasert og vektlegge erfaringsbasert kunnskap. Eksempelvis utvides omfanget av undervisningspraksis. Endringen er utgangspunktet for denne artikkelen. Artikkelen tar opp det særegne ved profesjonskunnskap og divergensen mellom profesjonskunnskap og tradisjonelle vitenskapsfag. Divergensen drøftes på bakgrunn av en rapport fra 1974. Rapporten tar opp målsetting, organisering og studieinnhold for kommende hovedfag ved pedagogiske høgskoler, iverksatt fra 1976. Rapporten beskriver hvordan profesjonens særpreg skal gi retning til studiet. En liste over 10 ulike former for hovedfagsarbeid presenteres. Både eget kunstnerisk arbeid og læremiddelproduksjon ansees som relevante former for et hovedfagsarbeid. Denne artikkelen nærleser rapporten fra 1974 og argumenter for at drøftinger som føres der kan bidra til relevante diskusjoner, også ved innføringen av 5-årig lærerutdanning.</p> 2020-12-24T00:00:00+01:00 Opphavsrett 2020 Laila Belinda Fauske Begynnaropplæring i teikning 2019-08-07T12:08:50+02:00 Karen Brænne Janne Heggvoll <p><em>Artikkelen har begynnaropplæring i teikning som tema. Ved å studere fagstoff om teikneopplæring nytta ved norske grunnskulelærarutdanningar, utviklar denne teksten tre ulike teoretiske kategoriar som skildrar teiknemetodiske tilnærmingar. Kategoriane er forma med støtte frå lese- og skriveopplæringsfeltet og omgrepa analytiske og syntetiske tilnærmingar, samt kunnskapsteoretiske og læringsteoretiske posisjonar. I tillegg blir omgrepet progresjon ved Ralph Tyler (1948) nytta for å utdjupe det som kjem fram. Bidraget er meint å vere ein forsiktig start på å utvikle ei teikneteoretisk plattform til støtte for dei institusjonane som utdannar lærarar for dei minste i skulen.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> 2018-10-08T00:00:00+02:00 Opphavsrett 2018 Karen Braenne, Janne Heggvoll