Nordic Journal of Comparative and International Education (NJCIE) 2023-08-30T12:32:35+02:00 Halla Holmarsdottir Open Journal Systems <p><em>The Nordic Journal of Comparative and International Education (NJCIE) </em>is the only journal in the Nordic countries specifically addressing themes within our field and serves as a connecting node for comparative scholars in, or interested in, the region. NJCIE is a <a href="">Diamond Open Access</a> journal following the Science Europe initiative working to strengthen Diamond Open Access in scholarly publishing.</p> <p>We invite papers that seek to analyze educational discourse, policy and practice and their implications for teaching and learning, and particularly invite papers investigating topics through an interdisciplinary lens focusing on new insights and fostering critical debate about the role of education in diverse societies. <em>NJCIE</em> is concerned with the interplay of local, national, regional and global contexts shaping education. The ways in which local understandings can bring to light the trends, effects and influences that exist in different contexts globally highlight the general understanding of Comparative and International Education in <em>NJCIE</em>.</p> <p>All papers should include a comparative and/or international dimension. Furthermore, all contributions must engage with wider theories and debates in the field of comparative and international education and include a Nordic and/or global perspective.</p> <p><em>NJCIE</em> invites Nordic and international contributions alike. The journal includes research from all geographic regions in the world. The journal invites contributions in English and all official Nordic languages. <em>NJCIE</em> aims for four issues per year.</p> Culturally responsive assessment in compulsory schooling in Denmark and Iceland - An illusion or a reality? A comparative study of student teachers’ experiences and perspectives 2023-06-23T12:16:33+02:00 Artëm Ingmar Benediktsson <div> <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-GB">This paper explores and compares student teachers’ experiences and perspectives on culturally responsive assessment in compulsory schooling in Denmark and Iceland. The study’s theoretical framework draws on scholarship on culturally responsive assessment. The data was derived from fourteen interviews with Danish student teachers and ten interviews with Icelandic student teachers. As per the selection criteria, all participants had to be in the final stages of their education process, meaning they had completed their on-site schoolteacher training and most courses in their teacher education programme. During the interviews, the participants reflected on pre-instructional, formative, and summative assessment practices with cultural diversity in mind. Furthermore, they discussed the importance of assessing children’s well-being. In both countries, the participants demonstrated positive attitudes towards cultural diversity and expressed awareness of considering children’s cultural and linguistic backgrounds when assessing them. On the other hand, most participants expressed criticism of teacher education programmes for lacking attention to the topic of culturally responsive assessment, which resulted in their rudimentary understanding of the theoretical underpinnings.</span></p> </div> 2023-08-31T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Artëm Ingmar Benediktsson Educational Ideas on the Move 2023-08-20T16:21:43+02:00 Thilde Juul-Wiese <p>Based on ethnographic fieldwork amongst Danish student teachers, this paper examines international teaching internships from a mobilities and spatial perspective. While the international teaching internship is regarded as a tool to develop student teachers’ intercultural competencies, this paper shows how culturally shaped educational ideas travel with and are practiced by student teachers in new educational and cultural contexts. Therefore, this paper suggests that such internships may perpetuate and reinforce normative ideas about pedagogy and ‘correct’ ways of teaching, being a pupil, and a teacher. The paper finds that student teachers see some educational ideas and practices as universal and applicable everywhere and others as particular and spatially bound. This, the paper argues, reflects a hierarchisation of ideas based on an assumption of the superiority of ‘Western’ education, which results in processes of pedagogical othering. The paper further argues that international teaching internships represent an important avenue to critically discuss educational values and examine how values impact pedagogical practice, furthering students’ professional development.</p> 2023-09-12T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Thilde Juul-Wiese Frameworking vocational teachers’ digital competences 2023-07-17T23:14:50+02:00 Leif Christian Lahn Svanhild Kristine Berntsen <p>Two decades of international research on digital competence of teachers have provided a number of frameworks for empirical studies and curriculum development. However, research publications addressing the needed digital competence of vocational (VET-) teachers are scarce. In this article we ask to what extent leading conceptual frameworks on digital competence are fruitful templates for studying such competences in the case of VET-teachers’ professional development, and what could be alternative conceptual models that fit this professional category. A synthesis is made of relevant literature based on a theoretical platform in vocational didactics and digitalization that highlights the diversity of international VET-systems and the connectivity between work and school. We adopt an integrative literature research approach that combines systematic procedures and supplementary searches in an iterative way.</p> <p>Our descriptive analysis of the literature indicated that the international research on VET-teachers digital competence had in general a narrow focus on technical skills with a lack of perspective on key issues about their digital competences such as connectivity school / work, subject-specificity, and adaptive pedagogy. The articles tended to leave out contextual issues, for example the changing professional work of vocational teachers and background information about the national VET-systems. However, part of the literature pointed to the need for more “grounded” research starting from case-studies and qualitative data / mixed-methods research. Our synthesis of the literature in light of our theoretical framing identified four main topics for further research on VET-teachers’ digital competence that were incorporated in a working model or a “frameworking” that needs to be further developed in order to provide a rich and validated basis for constructing professional programs.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-08-31T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Leif Christian Lahn, Svanhild Kristine Berntsen Pedagogising Virtual Reality Technology 2023-05-10T09:39:54+02:00 Verner Larsen <p>Digital technology has increasingly influenced all areas of education, including higher education, with subject-specific technologies developed for professional contexts alongside general communication and collaboration tools. This article draws on a case study conducted in a bachelor programme within building construction design in Denmark, tracking how teachers converted technical knowledge about virtual reality into teaching practice. This transformation process has crystallised different pedagogies, even within the same course. One pedagogical aim was for students to learn to use virtual reality (VR) as a professional competence, while another was to use VR as a tool for learning subject content (building design). This case study raises general issues regarding teachers' use of technology for teaching, addressed in the research tradition of technological, pedagogical and content knowledge (TPACK). However, to delve deeper into the educational transformation processes, this article adds an educational sociological perspective, including concepts from Legitimation Code Theory (LCT). With this background, this article raises new questions about the TPACK concept and discusses how the technological knowledge domains in the TPACK model can be differentiated to reflect various digital technologies and their functions, particularly in professional education.</p> 2023-08-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Verner Larsen Exploring the Power of Internationalization in Teacher Education 2023-01-27T12:14:14+01:00 Halla B. Holmarsdottir Supriya Baily Merethe Skårås Kathy Ramos April Ege Sissil Lea Heggernes Tami Carsillo 2023-02-10T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Halla B. Holmarsdottir, Supriya Baily, Merethe Skårås, Kathy Ramos, April Ege, Sissil Lea Heggernes, Tami Carsillo L’épicentre: Démocratie, Éco*Citoyenneté mondiale et Éducation transformatoire The Epicenter: Democracy, Eco*Global Citizenship and Transformative Education El Epicentro: Democracia, Eco*Ciudadanía Mundial y Educación Transformadora 2022-12-20T13:17:07+01:00 Sigrun Wessel Svenkerud Andrea Hofmann 2023-01-27T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Sigrun Wessel Svenkerud, Andrea Hofmann Editorial: Inclusion in vocational education and training (VET) 2022-09-28T07:58:58+02:00 Evi Schmid Veerle Garrels 2022-11-14T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Evi Schmid, Veerle Garrels “I am Sámi, but I am not a Sámi” 2022-11-29T11:20:03+01:00 Anna-Maria Stenseth <p class="Paragraph" style="text-indent: 0cm;">This article gives voice to coastal Sámi students and explores their negotiations over being Sámi or Norwegian within the Norwegian education system. Through interviews, students share insights on the extent to which education focuses on Sámi issues and reflect upon their identity. The article explores how youths negotiate personal identity within pre-existing structures by employing Archer’s theory on structure and agency as a backdrop. The changing phases in how ‘western’ societies view indigenous practices and knowledges are applied together with (de)colonial perspectives to understand (colonial) structures. Some key findings are that the coastal Sámi students’ identity negotiations are complex, as official discourses seem to restrict them from identifying as ‘real’ Sámi, and that the local Sámi is within a discursive void due to unintended consequences resulting from the unification in the centralised education system. In focusing on students and using the educational system as a backdrop, this article seeks to deepen the understanding of how society and the educational system in particular condition students’ notions of what it entails to be Sámi and how students negotiate their identity.</p> 2023-01-05T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Anna-Maria Stenseth School absenteeism among students in Germany, Japan, Sweden, and the United Kingdom: 2023-03-24T15:57:12+01:00 Ulf Fredriksson Maria Rasmusson Åsa Backlund Joakim Isaksson Susanne Kreitz-Sandberg <p>School absenteeism is a challenge in many countries. Still, there are few comparisons between countries, which is partly due to a lack of shared definitions of concepts. This article makes use of PISA data to compare self-reported student absenteeism in Germany, Japan, Sweden, and the United Kingdom (UK). Three data sets are used, from 2012, 2015, and 2018. The self-reported absenteeism, which is referred to as truancy in the PISA studies, was measured as having skipped a whole school day at least once in the two full weeks before students completed the PISA student questionnaire.</p> <p>The results show great variation between the studied countries, from 24.4% in the UK in 2015 to 1.5% in Japan in 2012. The percentage of students who reported having skipped school is much higher in the UK than in the other three countries. The differences between the countries concerning the percentage of students reporting having been absent from school are significant for all years, except between Sweden and Germany in 2015. Germany and the UK have a similar pattern in development, with the highest percentages in 2015, while Sweden and Japan have small (albeit not significant) increases from 2012 to 2018. The UK is the only country where the changes between 2012 and 2015 as well as between 2015 and 2018 were significant.</p> <p>It is not possible to see any obvious patterns between the countries that might be linked to differences related to their welfare regimes, education systems, or values. To find such patterns, it may be necessary either to include more countries in a study or to conduct more in-depth studies on each country.</p> 2023-04-24T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Ulf Fredriksson, Maria Rasmusson, Åsa Backlund, Joakim Isaksson, Susanne Kreitz-Sandberg Discourses of democratic education in the preparation of teachers for international contexts 2023-01-20T09:26:58+01:00 Karianne Helland <p>This article offers a critical and comparative view of democratic education as expressed in curriculum documents of ten teacher education programmes aimed at educating teachers for international contexts. Democracy and democratic education are concepts with contested meanings, and I use the discourses of democratic education identified by Sant (2019) as an analytical tool for mapping the understandings or approaches present in the documents. Intercultural competence, global citizenship, and International Mindedness are contested and overlapping concepts which intersect with these democratic discourses. The tension between a neoliberal discourse and a traditional focus on international-mindedness and global citizenship is often described as characteristic of international schools. The “internationalist” ethos dominates course descriptions and learning objectives. While several discourses of democratic education are present, the focus is mainly individual and geared towards intercultural understanding rather than democratic competences. The idea of the student as a citizen beyond the limits of the classroom walls is not very visible, nor are concepts of power and privilege.</p> 2023-04-25T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Karianne Helland Reclaiming songs of wisdom in rural Bangladesh 2022-08-18T10:50:49+02:00 Maria Jordet <p>What kind of music teaching and learning takes place among folk musicians and young ones, aiming to reclaim their oral tradition and educate new master teachers? This question will be answered by drawing on extensive fieldwork at nine song-and-music schools in rural Bangladesh, applying critical realism as a meta-theory. An overall aim is to expand views on what music teaching and learning can be, with potential implications for education beyond rural Bangladesh. The empirical material was collected through a focus group interview with 12 students in an advanced class and in-depth interviews with these students and their three master teachers. The analysis shows that the generational transmission can be seen as based on the ‘four pillars’ of music pedagogy. These are re-described through dialectical critical realism in an abductive process, showing that music pedagogy can open an ontology and dialectic on being and becoming human for the participants. Results are discussed with <em>absence</em> and <em>remembrance</em> as key concepts. The study provides practical and philosophical insights into a music pedagogy about deep learning and resonance: towards transformative praxis.</p> 2022-11-21T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Maria Jordet Agency is an illusion 2022-09-12T08:19:22+02:00 Solveig Maria Magerøy <p>This article investigates student teachers’ perceptions and experiences in teacher education regarding codetermination and participation as a part of education for democracy and citizenship, along with how they visualize their future teaching in this interdisciplinary theme as teachers in schools. The data material includes 16 extensive interviews with six student teachers in their final year of teacher education in Norway. The results demonstrate a discrepancy between their perceptions and praxis concerning participation. First, the student teachers in their last year of teacher education felt the ability to participate in and through their education was present, but they chose not to take advantage of this possibility. They underlined the importance of participation and agency in education for democracy but did not seem to assign the same importance to their involvement in education. Second, when visualizing how to teach democracy and citizenship in schools, they suggested facilitating pupils’ self-determination in situations where the pupils’ decisions and participation do not change or impact anything. In so doing, they described participation and agency as an illusion; something that is important, necessary, and valuable but with no practical implications. The student teachers seemed to transfer this same illusion of pupils’ agency and participation in their planned teaching in the future.</p> 2022-09-27T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Solveig Maria Magerøy On a Mission to Break Ground for a More Democratic School System 2022-10-03T10:26:45+02:00 Tessa Eriksen Grevle <p>The importance of building democratic competency in the face of current global challenges cascades down into national curricula. Illustratively, in 2020, Norway introduced a new national curriculum that conveyed an expectation that students should experience a democratic school society in practice. In response to this new curriculum, in 2019, an upper secondary school in Norway decided to embark on a mission to develop and implement a new pedagogical model. The ambition was to increase the students’ sense of codetermination and participation in school, the local community, and society at large. Subsequently, an interdisciplinary pedagogical model has been in development at the school, in which the subject content is organized according to overarching topics. These topics are presented to students as quests called learning missions.</p> <p>Through in-depth interviews with teachers and leaders currently working on developing the new pedagogical method at the school, the current article investigates the challenges and opportunities the participants encountered in this process. The data have been coded through a stepwise deductive-induction method and analyzed using Bernstein’s concepts of <em>classification </em>and <em>frame. </em>The participants identified the inflexible organizational structures of the school—such as the school administrative system, the building, assessments, and the set timetable—as aspects that made it challenging for the school to depart from the dissemination-based approach to education. Inversely, the implementation of interdisciplinary topics in the Norwegian National Curriculum is one example of a structural change that the participants thought had opened up more flexibility. However, the participants experienced that this flexibility was not extended into the regulations controlling how time is spent in school or the assessment forms. Hence the article concludes that structural changes are necessary to enable the growth of pedagogical models that can increase students’ codetermination, active participation, and real-life experiences in schools.</p> 2023-01-04T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Tessa Eriksen Grevle What makes supported internships an effective approach to VET? 2022-08-02T13:28:44+02:00 Jill Hanson Debs Robinson Geraldene Codina <p>Internationally, there have been varied attempts to secure the inclusion of young people with Special Educational Needs and Disabilities (SEND) in Vocational Education and Training (VET). This paper investigates <em>supported internships</em> (SIs), which are programmes that include college courses in numeracy and literacy, workplace learning, and broader life skill development. Drawing on an empirical study of one SI in England, this paper focuses on the pedagogic structure of SIs to explore how systematic instruction combines with elements of the workplace environment to bring about successful vocational learning for young people with SEND. It considers whether the expansive-restrictive conceptualisation of apprenticeship learning explains successful outcomes within an SI. A case study approach using a qualitative methodology of semi-structured interviews was adopted to explore the experiences of people involved in the SI. These included two job coaches, four colleagues, six interns and three graduates from the SI. Thematic analysis revealed this SI facilitates workplace learning for young people with SEND because it models an expansive (not reductive) approach to internships. Systematic instruction did not result in restrictive learning because of role design and broader organisational features. A key facilitating aspect was that the design of the internship fostered opportunities to develop identity through crossing boundaries. Implications for the design of SIs (to facilitate social inclusion and ensure employment outcomes for young people with SEND) are discussed.</p> 2022-11-14T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Jill Hanson, Debs Robinson, Geraldene Codina Why Is It So Difficult to Contribute to Social Inclusion Through Vocational Education and Training? 2022-03-30T06:48:18+02:00 Markus Maurer Mahboob Morshed Ognen Spasovski <p>This paper compares “recognition of prior learning” (RPL) schemes in four countries, to find out the impact of VET policy reforms on social inclusion. The study finds that RPL schemes have only made limited contributions to social inclusion in these countries, for the following reasons: firstly, there are challenges in upper secondary VET, which, in all four countries, requires a substantial level of general education and transversal competencies, on which the key educational policy actors are not willing to compromise. Secondly, some countries used RPL to provide access to non-formal qualifications. Still, such schemes were only successful when those non-formal qualifications were already well-established in society and the labour market (prior to having been made accessible through RPL). The article argues that, for RPL to contribute more to social inclusion, schemes need to be less complicated and should also include complementary education and training provisions for all those who lack work experience in sectors where access to employment depends on certain qualifications.</p> 2022-09-27T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Markus Maurer, Mahboob Morshed, Ognen Spasovski