Nordic Journal of Comparative and International Education (NJCIE) 2021-07-08T12:58:17+02:00 Halla Holmarsdottir Open Journal Systems <p><em>Nordic Journal of Comparative and International Education (NJCIE) </em>is the only journal in the Nordic countries specifically addressing themes within our field and serves as a connecting node for comparative scholars in, or interested in, the region. We invite papers that&nbsp;seek to analyze educational discourse, policy and practice and their implications for teaching and learning, and particularly invites papers investigating topics through an interdisciplinary lens focusing on new insights and fostering critical debate about the role of education in diverse societies. <em>NJCIE</em> is concerned with the interplay of local, national, regional and global contexts shaping education. The ways in which local understandings can bring to light the trends, effects and influences that exist in different contexts globally highlight the general understanding of Comparative and International Education in <em>NJCIE</em>.</p> <p><em>NJCIE</em> invites Nordic and international contributions alike. The journal includes research from all geographic regions in the world. The journal invites contributions in English and all official Nordic languages. <em>NJCIE</em> aims for four issues per year.</p> Book review 2021-07-08T12:58:17+02:00 Bendik Fredriksen 2021-08-13T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Bendik Fredriksen Establishing a multicultural learning environment based on active knowledge exchange and mutual trust between teachers and students 2021-04-05T19:48:03+02:00 Artëm Ingmar Benediktsson <div><span lang="EN-GB">Cultural and linguistic composition of the population of Iceland is constantly expanding. This brings new opportunities as well as challenges to the educational institutions that need to adapt to the new reality. Culturally responsive teaching and assessment methods have become increasingly important to motivate all students and provide them with equal opportunities. The research project, <em>“It is not only the Teacher who is Talking; It is an Exchange”</em>, was the first extensive qualitative study conducted in Icelandic universities to investigate immigrant students’ experiences of the learning environments and teaching methods. Forty-one first-generation immigrants participated in the study. The findings provided a deep insight into immigrant students’ experiences of being university students. The study brought to the forefront challenges that the participants experienced during the educational process, including language related issues, shortage of appropriate educational support and lack of clear policies regarding special assistance during examination periods. Furthermore, the study highlighted the importance of establishing a multicultural learning environment where every student has equal access and opportunity for personal development.&nbsp;</span></div> 2021-05-31T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Artëm Ingmar Benediktsson Young migrant students’ motivators and drive for obtaining education 2021-03-04T14:26:53+01:00 Inger Kjersti Lindvig Trine Svenni <p>This article investigates how students from migrant backgrounds describe their motivators and drive for obtaining an education. It is based on a qualitative study of 17 young people aged 16-24. All are students in combination classes at a large upper-secondary school in Eastern Norway and are recent arrivals in Norway with little prior education. Half aspire to higher education, while the others are applying for vocational training. In this article, we link these educational ambitions to four forms of motivation. The<strong> <em>immigrant motivator</em></strong> relates to high academic expectations among parents and other family members. In addition to the immigrant motivator, there is what we refer to as the <strong><em>middle-class motivator, </em></strong>where parents of low socio-economic status exert influence in a way that can be understood as a kind of middle-class behaviour. The <strong><em>world-citizen motivator</em></strong> encompasses the students’ desires to contribute by giving something back to their home countries, the host country, and the global community. The <strong><em>opportunity motivator </em></strong>is linked to the efforts of the school community to provide an inclusive and facilitative environment for this group of students. Schools that offer adapted and differentiated teaching, customized to the needs of individual students, as with combination classes, seem to function as important protective factors.</p> 2021-06-10T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Inger Kjersti Lindvig, Trine Svenni Pressing issues in education - a discussion 2021-02-18T16:06:11+01:00 Heidi Biseth Halla Holmarsdottir <p>Editorial discussion in an audio file - available for download on the right-hand side column - 7,5 minutes.</p> 2021-02-18T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Heidi Biseth, Halla Holmarsdottir Examining Teach for All: International Perspectives on a Growing Global Network 2021-02-17T14:56:01+01:00 Sharanya Menon 2021-02-22T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Sharanya Menon Editorial Introduction 2021-02-03T11:32:46+01:00 David G. Hebert <p>The articles in this special issue on “New Perspectives on Asian Educational Philosophies” offer a comparative perspective to explain the educational philosophies of notable Asian thinkers who tend to be little recognized in Europe. Arguments associated with decolonization offer one timely rationale for our work, but our purpose with this special issue is not so much about convincing readers that change is necessary, but rather to offer specific resources for diversification of higher education curricula. We assume that as years pass, educators will increasingly seek to know more about educational thought from across the world. </p> 2021-05-31T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 David G. Hebert On Ki Hadjar Dewantara’s Philosophy of Education 2021-03-12T17:02:13+01:00 Dorothy Ferary <p>This comparative education article explores the purpose of education in the Indonesian context. My aim is to see if there are any differences between the purpose of education during the colonial era and present-day Indonesia. In order to do that, I draw mostly on the philosophy of Ki Hadjar Dewantara, who is regarded as the father of Indonesian education. This article is particularly relevant because the Indonesian government has recently started to critically re-examine two of the educational concepts proposed by Dewantara, which are "<em>pendidikan karakter</em>" (character education) and "<em>merdeka belajar</em>" (independent learning). In conceptualising education, Dewantara, who was influenced by Tagore, Montessori, and Fröbel, saw the importance of imparting local wisdom and values ignored by the colonial schools. Therefore, in this article, I will compare his educational views with the Dutch view of schooling during the colonial era. I will then look at Indonesia's current approach to education to find the similarities and differences of purpose relative to Dewantara's views of education. In this article, I argue that Dewantara's philosophy is still very much relevant today. I conclude that the Indonesian government should refer back to its history when defining education for its next generation.</p> 2021-05-31T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Dorothy Ferary Cai Yuanpei’s Vision of Aesthetic Education and His Legacy in Modern China 2021-04-06T06:40:45+02:00 Ning LUO <p>Cai Yuanpei is widely understood to have been a traditionally educated Chinese scholar who then turned his attention to Western philosophy. He is known to have played a central role in the development of Republican educational philosophies and institutions, with a legacy that continues to inform education in China. Studies tend to interpret Cai Yuanpei’s approach to aesthetic education in light of his educational experience in Germany, regarding him as a Kantian scholar. However, the Confucian roots of his aesthetic education seldom draw scholarly attention. To fill the gap, this article examines Cai’s vision of aesthetic education based on both his academic background in the East and his knowledge of Western philosophy and maps out his influence on and legacy in aesthetic education in China. It argues that Cai’s vision of aesthetic education has influenced modern Chinese education in three main ways: by bridging the gap between moral education and aesthetic education to nurture citizenship, by encouraging aesthetic education for whole-person development, and by adopting an interdisciplinary approach to school aesthetic education. The article concludes by reflecting on the enduring value of Cai’s vision of aesthetic education to modern Chinese education.</p> 2021-05-31T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ning LUO The Self-Orientalization of Polish Music Education 2021-03-12T08:17:32+01:00 Adam Switala <p>Polish and international scholars have frequently made use of the postcolonial lens as a presumably valid tool to examine conditions in post-soviet Eastern Europe. The mutual Orientalization of the “other” during the Cold War period in both democratic and communist camps appears to have occasioned prevailing after-effects in the field of Polish music education. This article discusses the above thesis in relation to the writings of two highly influential representatives of postcolonial thought who are also personally connected to the world of music: Edward Said and Rabindranath Tagore. Sections one and two explain the use of the concept of Orientalism as an analytical framework for the article and briefly discuss the rationale behind looking at Poland as a postcolonial country. Next, selected articles by Polish scholars are being analyzed with regard to the historical context of music education in Poland and a broader international perspective. The contemporary discourse of Polish educational policymakers is being discussed with regard to the underlying philosophical and ideological approaches. Finally, the article emphasizes some of the main issues preventing the system of general music education in Poland from acquiring a more inclusive and democratic framework and proposes possible future directions for sustainable change.</p> 2021-05-31T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Adam Switala Intergenerational learning and Sikolohiyang Pilipino 2021-04-14T19:46:55+02:00 Czarecah Tuppil Oropilla Jean Guadana <p>Research on intergenerational learning delves into both the reciprocal transfer of knowledge and learning relationships between different generations. However, as this is an emerging research topic, there is a gap in the information available from various cultures. This paper aims to present intergenerational learning through the development of non-western indigenous psychology via the lens of Sikolohiyang Pilipino (Filipino psychology) in order to broaden the existing perspectives and understanding of intergenerational learning, engagements, and programs. By utilizing the theoretical framework of Sikolohiyang Pilipino, notably as espoused by Virgilio Enriquez, indigenous Filipino values are identified as key to understanding the predominance of family and community as venues and arenas for intergenerational learning in the Philippines. This underscores the importance of using the philosophical arguments associated with different cultural perspectives to challenge current assumptions and biases in intergenerational research and of being mindful when applying concepts that predominate in one culture to another. Additional intergenerational research in the Philippines will benefit from the inclusion of Sikolohiyang Pilipino as a theoretical framework since this will enable a deeper understanding of educational concepts within Filipino culture.</p> 2021-05-31T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Czarecah Tuppil Oropilla, Jean Guadana Comparison of self-reflection in Humboldtian Bildung and the Kyoto School 2021-03-01T09:24:24+01:00 Miwa Chiba <p>This article focuses on the importance of reflective experiences in education. It firstly reviews and compares the Humboldtian <em>Bildung </em>and the Kyoto School, represented by Nishida Kitaro. Both philosophies emphasize the importance of reflective experiences in education, criticising the specific knowledge-skill-based instruction approach. In this sense, the two views are similar. However, this article further explains the significant difference in how the<em> self</em> is considered in relation to the <em>world</em> within each thought, and therefore, how each educational approach is different, namely as seen in the idea of <em>negative education</em> from the Kyoto School. In the latter section, this article develops the discussion of reflection in the process of learning provided in the OECD Education 2030 framework, which was initiated in 2015 and that is still ongoing. Criticising didactic learning as the sole approach for knowledge and skill acquisition, the OECD Education framework advocates instead for the importance of student self-reflection in relation to society to support a broader development of necessary competencies. By comparing the two schools of thought, the article reveals the underlying assumption of <em>self </em>in Western mainstream educational philosophy, and it argues for the importance of open-mindedness toward the other worldview.</p> 2021-05-31T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Miwa Chiba A Child-Centred Discourse in Zambian Kindergartens? 2021-02-11T15:16:29+01:00 Elisabeth Almaz Berger Eriksen <p>This article aims to identify and discuss the existence and strengthening of a child-centred teaching discourse in Zambian kindergartens. The article is based on the understanding that the teacher-directed approach to teaching is a historically based hegemonic discourse within Zambian kindergartens. This means that the teacher-directed teaching discourse dominates thinking in many ways and is translated into institutional arrangements (Hajer, 1995, in Svarstad, 2005, p. 243). Several studies have pointed to the challenges posed by the teacher-directed teaching discourse in kindergartens in Sub-Saharan Africa as a hindrance of pedagogical quality in such institutions, pointing to a child-centred teaching discourse as an important path towards development (EFA, 2015, p. 208, Temba, 2014, p. 110; Mwaura et al., 2008; 2011). This article includes a positive discourse analysis of the Zambian Education Curriculum Framework<a href="" name="_ftnref1">[1]</a> and a small-scale qualitative study, based on observations from four classrooms in four kindergartens in the Copperbelt province of Zambia. The article focuses on conducting a positive discourse analysis of the elements of child-centred teaching discourse observed in one of the four classrooms. The findings point to the existence of a child-centred teaching discourse in the Zambian Education Curriculum Framework. However, only one of the four Zambian kindergarten teachers seemed to implement teaching practices that could be identified as a child-centred teaching discourse. The elements of a child-centred teaching discourse identified through the positive discourse analysis were: the kindergarten teachers’ professional decisions, good interaction with children, use of a variety of materials, and children’s participation. The findings are discussed in light of the Zambian Education Curriculum Framework as well as theoretical perspectives on child-centred teaching discourse, argumentation theory and children’s right to participation. Finally, the article includes a critical discussion of how the findings may strengthen a child-centred teaching discourse in Zambian kindergartens.</p> 2021-04-12T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Elisabeth Almaz Berger Eriksen Scientifically Designed Teacher Education 2021-04-28T16:30:14+02:00 Jessica Aspfors Gunilla Eklund Anna Holand Tove Fiskum Sven-Erik Hansén Kirsti Jegstad <p>This paper investigates teacher educators’ perceptions of scientifically designed teacher education in Finland and Norway and asks the following research questions: How do teacher educators in Finland and Norway perceive scientifically designed teacher education? How do they perceive teacher education regarding the research-led, research-tutored, research-based, and research-oriented dimensions? The study is comparative and uses a quantitative methodological approach based on a questionnaire survey administered to teacher educators in three departments of teacher education, two in Norway and one in Finland. The findings indicate overall positive and quite similar perceptions between the two countries. Despite the similarities, there were differences, particularly in the dimension concerning teacher-focused activities and in the research-tutored dimension. Furthermore, teacher educators’ perceptions were more varied among the Norwegian teacher educators, compared to the Finnish respondents.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Jessica Aspfors, Gunilla Eklund, Anna M. Holand, Tove A. Fiskum, Sven-Erik Hansén, Kirsti M. Jegstad Global Demands – Local Practices 2021-03-17T11:49:39+01:00 Susanne Kreitz-Sandberg Elina Lahelma <p>Gender equality is a global aim that has been presented in numerous documents. However, teacher education programs in many countries still lack sustainable strategies for working towards gender equality in education. Working successfully in this area may promote more sustainable practices in schools to reach gender-fair societies. The Nordic countries are known for pro-active gender policies and they provide interesting cases for investigating achievements and struggles in the field. The purpose of this article is, from an international comparative perspective, to explore the rationales and practices when working with issues of gender equality in Finnish and Swedish teacher education and to reflect on related concepts. We describe, analyse and compare local practices, theoretical frameworks and challenges by revisiting gender and teacher education research and equality projects from the 1980s up to today. The comparative methodology chosen facilitates understanding examples from two neighbouring countries, illustrating different ways to develop policies and strategies. Local actors not only follow global claims to work with gender and equality in teacher education but also play an active role and contribute to these discourses. Our study suggests that gender equality cannot be achieved overnight; appropriate strategies need to be negotiated constantly in specific national and institutional contexts at universities and teacher education institutions.</p> 2021-04-12T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Susanne Kreitz-Sandberg, Elina Lahelma Editorial: Perspectives on teachers’ transdisciplinary professional competence 2020-10-12T12:49:13+02:00 Bjørn Smestad Monica Johannesen Hanne Christensen <p><span data-contrast="none">What are the prevalent understandings of the concept of teachers</span><span data-contrast="none">’</span><span data-contrast="none"> professional competence? What knowledge forms and learning arenas are significant in developing teacher competences for the 21st century? In what ways can transdisciplinary goals of teacher education (such as diversity, </span><span data-contrast="none">research and development</span><span data-contrast="none"> (R&amp;D)</span><span data-contrast="none"> and digital competence) contribute in forming teachers</span><span data-contrast="none">’</span><span data-contrast="none"> professional competence? This special issue’s contributions address a variety of perspectives on core concepts for understanding the complexity of teachers</span><span data-contrast="none">’</span><span data-contrast="none"> professional competence.</span> <span data-contrast="none">They</span><span data-contrast="none"> define, question </span><span data-contrast="none">and </span><span data-contrast="none">criticize the prevalent epistemological and ontological understanding</span><span data-contrast="none">s</span><span data-contrast="none"> within teacher qualification. </span><span data-contrast="none">They</span><span data-contrast="none"> include theoretical and empirical papers addressing a variety of perspectives on teacher qualification and teachers</span><span data-contrast="none">’</span><span data-contrast="none"> professional competence, with a particular focus on the role of </span><span data-contrast="none">modes of </span><span data-contrast="none">knowledge, learning arenas and </span><span data-contrast="none">multidisciplinarity</span><span data-contrast="none"> as contributors to transdisciplinary goals in teacher qualification. In addition, contributions illustrate dimensions of teachers</span><span data-contrast="none">’</span><span data-contrast="none"> professional competences such as teachers</span><span data-contrast="none">’</span><span data-contrast="none"> diversity competence, teachers</span><span data-contrast="none">’</span><span data-contrast="none"> R&amp;D competence and teachers</span><span data-contrast="none">’</span><span data-contrast="none"> digital competence.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559731&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:276}">&nbsp;</span></p> 2020-12-29T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Bjørn Smestad, Monica Johannesen, Hanne Christensen