Nordic Journal of Comparative and International Education (NJCIE) <p><em>Nordic Journal of Comparative and International Education (NJCIE) </em>is the only journal in the Nordic countries specifically addressing themes within our field and serves as a connecting node for comparative scholars in, or interested in, the region. We invite papers that&nbsp;seek to analyze educational discourse, policy and practice and their implications for teaching and learning, and particularly invites papers investigating topics through an interdisciplinary lens focusing on new insights and fostering critical debate about the role of education in diverse societies. <em>NJCIE</em> is concerned with the interplay of local, national, regional and global contexts shaping education. The ways in which local understandings can bring to light the trends, effects and influences that exist in different contexts globally highlight the general understanding of Comparative and International Education in <em>NJCIE</em>.</p> <p><em>NJCIE</em> invites Nordic and international contributions alike. The journal includes research from all geographic regions in the world. The journal invites contributions in English and all official Nordic languages. <em>NJCIE</em> aims for four issues per year.</p> Oslo Metropolitan University & University of South-Eastern Norway en-US Nordic Journal of Comparative and International Education (NJCIE) 2535-4051 <p><strong>Declaration on copyright</strong></p><ul><li>The author/s will keep their copyright and right of reproduction of their own manuscript, with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, but give the journal a permanent right to 1) present the manuscript to the public in the original form in which it was digitally published and 2) to be registered and cited as the first publication of the manuscript.</li><li>The author itself must manage its financial reproduction rights in relation to any third-parties.</li><li> The journal does not provide any financial or other remuneration for contributions submitted.</li><li>Readers of the journal may print the manuscripts presented under the same conditions that apply to reproduction of a physical copy. This means that mass reproduction of physical copies or production of copies for commercial purposes is not permitted without the agreement of the author/s.</li></ul> Pressing issues in education - a discussion <p>Editorial discussion in an audio file - available for download on the right-hand side column - 7,5 minutes.</p> Heidi Biseth Halla Holmarsdottir Copyright (c) 2021 Heidi Biseth, Halla Holmarsdottir 2021-02-18 2021-02-18 5 1 10.7577/njcie.4194 Examining Teach for All: International Perspectives on a Growing Global Network Sharanya Menon Copyright (c) 2021 Sharanya Menon 2021-02-22 2021-02-22 5 1 69 71 10.7577/njcie.4189 A Child-Centred Discourse in Zambian Kindergartens? <p>This article aims to identify and discuss the existence and strengthening of a child-centred teaching discourse in Zambian kindergartens. The article is based on the understanding that the teacher-directed approach to teaching is a historically based hegemonic discourse within Zambian kindergartens. This means that the teacher-directed teaching discourse dominates thinking in many ways and is translated into institutional arrangements (Hajer, 1995, in Svarstad, 2005, p. 243). Several studies have pointed to the challenges posed by the teacher-directed teaching discourse in kindergartens in Sub-Saharan Africa as a hindrance of pedagogical quality in such institutions, pointing to a child-centred teaching discourse as an important path towards development (EFA, 2015, p. 208, Temba, 2014, p. 110; Mwaura et al., 2008; 2011). This article includes a positive discourse analysis of the Zambian Education Curriculum Framework<a href="" name="_ftnref1">[1]</a> and a small-scale qualitative study, based on observations from four classrooms in four kindergartens in the Copperbelt province of Zambia. The article focuses on conducting a positive discourse analysis of the elements of child-centred teaching discourse observed in one of the four classrooms. The findings point to the existence of a child-centred teaching discourse in the Zambian Education Curriculum Framework. However, only one of the four Zambian kindergarten teachers seemed to implement teaching practices that could be identified as a child-centred teaching discourse. The elements of a child-centred teaching discourse identified through the positive discourse analysis were: the kindergarten teachers’ professional decisions, good interaction with children, use of a variety of materials, and children’s participation. The findings are discussed in light of the Zambian Education Curriculum Framework as well as theoretical perspectives on child-centred teaching discourse, argumentation theory and children’s right to participation. Finally, the article includes a critical discussion of how the findings may strengthen a child-centred teaching discourse in Zambian kindergartens.</p> Elisabeth Almaz Berger Eriksen Copyright (c) 2021 Elisabeth Almaz Berger Eriksen 2021-04-12 2021-04-12 5 1 34 49 10.7577/njcie.4148 Global Demands – Local Practices <p>Gender equality is a global aim that has been presented in numerous documents. However, teacher education programs in many countries still lack sustainable strategies for working towards gender equality in education. Working successfully in this area may promote more sustainable practices in schools to reach gender-fair societies. The Nordic countries are known for pro-active gender policies and they provide interesting cases for investigating achievements and struggles in the field. The purpose of this article is, from an international comparative perspective, to explore the rationales and practices when working with issues of gender equality in Finnish and Swedish teacher education and to reflect on related concepts. We describe, analyse and compare local practices, theoretical frameworks and challenges by revisiting gender and teacher education research and equality projects from the 1980s up to today. The comparative methodology chosen facilitates understanding examples from two neighbouring countries, illustrating different ways to develop policies and strategies. Local actors not only follow global claims to work with gender and equality in teacher education but also play an active role and contribute to these discourses. Our study suggests that gender equality cannot be achieved overnight; appropriate strategies need to be negotiated constantly in specific national and institutional contexts at universities and teacher education institutions.</p> Susanne Kreitz-Sandberg Elina Lahelma Copyright (c) 2021 Susanne Kreitz-Sandberg, Elina Lahelma 2021-04-12 2021-04-12 5 1 50 68 10.7577/njcie.4052 Editorial: Perspectives on teachers’ transdisciplinary professional competence <p><span data-contrast="none">What are the prevalent understandings of the concept of teachers</span><span data-contrast="none">’</span><span data-contrast="none"> professional competence? What knowledge forms and learning arenas are significant in developing teacher competences for the 21st century? In what ways can transdisciplinary goals of teacher education (such as diversity, </span><span data-contrast="none">research and development</span><span data-contrast="none"> (R&amp;D)</span><span data-contrast="none"> and digital competence) contribute in forming teachers</span><span data-contrast="none">’</span><span data-contrast="none"> professional competence? This special issue’s contributions address a variety of perspectives on core concepts for understanding the complexity of teachers</span><span data-contrast="none">’</span><span data-contrast="none"> professional competence.</span> <span data-contrast="none">They</span><span data-contrast="none"> define, question </span><span data-contrast="none">and </span><span data-contrast="none">criticize the prevalent epistemological and ontological understanding</span><span data-contrast="none">s</span><span data-contrast="none"> within teacher qualification. </span><span data-contrast="none">They</span><span data-contrast="none"> include theoretical and empirical papers addressing a variety of perspectives on teacher qualification and teachers</span><span data-contrast="none">’</span><span data-contrast="none"> professional competence, with a particular focus on the role of </span><span data-contrast="none">modes of </span><span data-contrast="none">knowledge, learning arenas and </span><span data-contrast="none">multidisciplinarity</span><span data-contrast="none"> as contributors to transdisciplinary goals in teacher qualification. In addition, contributions illustrate dimensions of teachers</span><span data-contrast="none">’</span><span data-contrast="none"> professional competences such as teachers</span><span data-contrast="none">’</span><span data-contrast="none"> diversity competence, teachers</span><span data-contrast="none">’</span><span data-contrast="none"> R&amp;D competence and teachers</span><span data-contrast="none">’</span><span data-contrast="none"> digital competence.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559731&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:276}">&nbsp;</span></p> Bjørn Smestad Monica Johannesen Hanne Christensen Copyright (c) 2020 Bjørn Smestad, Monica Johannesen, Hanne Christensen 2020-12-29 2020-12-29 5 1 1 8 10.7577/njcie.4009 Meeting the Black Swan <p>In the 2018 International Forum for Teacher Educator Development (InFo-TED) Summer Academy, we, seven teacher educators from Belgium, England, Israel, Norway, and Scotland, became interested in strengthening our ICT competence. At an international conference in June 2019, we presented our personal stories about how we used ICT in our teaching, and what we wanted to learn more about. In June 2020 we wrote a new narrative describing our experiences with ICT which was forced upon us in the spring of 2020. In this narrative, we reflected on how we think our practice will change post-Covid-19. In this paper, we discuss our new narratives in relation to those we wrote in 2019. The two sets of stories were formed into seven vignettes seeking an answer to: 1) How did teacher educators (we) experience the Covid-19 which forced the need for change in working only online, and 2) How do we foresee that the current pandemic will change our future practice? The vignettes show we have had a steep learning curve regarding the technicalities of using ICT, exploring on our own as we were working from home. Moreover, we believe we will not return to pre-Covid-19 ways of teaching as we realise that ICT has not been fully exploited. Yet, we still need to find ways to combine ICT with our pedagogical visions as teacher educators. There are differences, benefits and disadvantages, related to our respective contexts, disciplines and competence. However, we found more similarities than differences. The latter is used to feed into each other’s professional learning. We all had to learn how to manage technical issues, and now we need to find ways to incorporate ICT critically and reflectively to model good teaching in teacher education. Covid-19 was a Black Swan which forced us to change. Now it is time to position ourselves as teacher educators in a changed reality.</p> Kari Smith Marit Ulvik Elizabeth Curtis Ainat Guberman Lut Lippeveld Tali Shapiro Sheeba Viswarajan Copyright (c) 2021 Kari Smith, Marit Ulvik, Elizabeth Curtis, Ainat Guberman, Lut Lippeveld, Tali Shapiro, Sheeba Viswarajan 2021-02-18 2021-02-18 5 1 17 33 10.7577/njcie.3974 Editorial Heidi Biseth Halla B. Holmarsdottir Copyright (c) 2020 Heidi Biseth; Halla B. Holmarsdottir 2020-06-30 2020-06-30 5 1 1 2 10.7577/njcie.3942 Decolonization of education from the perspective of a Norwegian solidarity organisation for students and academics Sunniva Folgen Høiskar Copyright (c) 2020 Sunniva Folgen Høiskar 2020-07-13 2020-07-13 5 1 172 177 10.7577/njcie.3903 Decolonial options in education – interrupting coloniality and inviting alternative conversations Kristin Gregers Eriksen Stine Helena Bang Svendsen Copyright (c) 2020 Kristin Gregers Eriksen, Stine Helena Bang Svendsen 2020-05-20 2020-05-20 5 1 1 9 10.7577/njcie.3859 What is the motivation of Norwegian and New Zealand teacher educators for using digital technology when teaching? <p>There is a gap between policies regarding the use of digital technology in higher education in Norway and what is practiced. Therefore, we have conducted a comparative study of teacher education in Norway and New Zealand. Using Herzberg’s two-factor theory, this study investigates what motivates teacher educators to use digital technology when teaching. Although the professional application of digital tools is more frequent in New Zealand than in Norway, the ability to use digital technology seems to be greater in Norway than in New Zealand. Based on Meier’s formula (performance = abilities × motivation), teacher educators’ performance is considered a result of their abilities and motivation. This indicates that motivation is a key element in understanding why the use of digital tools is more frequent amongst New Zealand teacher educators. When explaining their motivation for using digital technology, Norwegian teacher educators mentioned nine motivation factors and nine hygiene factors. The hygiene factors relate to the mandatory policy and the work conditions when teaching online. New Zealand teacher educators explained their motivation with 14 motivational factors and only four hygiene factors. New Zealand teacher educators seemed to be more motivated to work with digital technology than their Norwegian counterparts. This lack of motivation is one reason that could explain why the application of digital tools seemed lower in Norway than in New Zealand. Norwegian teacher educators explained that the main reason they use digital tools is the top-down implementation of government policy. Therefore, a fundamental challenge in the use of digital technology in Norway is the policy related to its implementation; as a part of the job environment, policy creates job dissatisfaction. Teacher educators from both countries highlighted achievement and policy as their main reasons for using digital technology, but Norwegian teacher educators were especially critical of their own country’s policy.</p> Siri Sollied Madsen Copyright (c) 2020 Siri Sollied Madsen 2020-07-01 2020-07-01 5 1 42 63 10.7577/njcie.3826 Comparing Early Childhood Teacher Education in the subject Language learning and Early literacy in Denmark and Norway <p>Few studies highlight the content of early childhood teacher education (ECTE) and examine the quality of knowledge acquired by future early childhood teachers. The current study concerns two questions. The first explores the goals of the national curricula in Danish and Norwegian ECTE concerning children’s language learning and early literacy. The second explores how satisfied Danish and Norwegian student teachers are with their own subjective learning outcomes related to the same themes. To answer the first question, data were collected through document analysis of the two countries’ national curricula. To answer the second question, data were collected through a survey handed out to student teachers in both countries at the end of their education. The survey contained questions about factual, procedural, and meta-knowledge areas. The survey participants comprised 199 Norwegian student teachers from three University Colleges and 90 Danish student teachers from three separate campuses at one University College. This study reveals that the Norwegian student teachers evaluated their subjective learning outcomes in the fields of language learning and early literacy more highly than Danish student teachers. Our research points to the fact that, compared to the Norwegian ECTE, the breadth of subjects in the Danish ECTE bachelor program tends to give lower subjective learning outcomes in these knowledge areas.</p> Liv Gjems Ida Kornerup Bente Vatne Vibeke Schrøder Copyright (c) 2021 Liv Gjems, Ida Kornerup, Bente Vatne, Vibeke Schrøder 2021-02-18 2021-02-18 5 1 1 16 10.7577/njcie.3825 Bringing deep learning to the surface <p><em>Deep learning</em> is a key term in current educational discourses worldwide and used by researchers, policymakers, stakeholders, politicians, organisations and the media with different definitions and, consequently, much confusion about its meaning and usage. This <em>systematic </em><em>mapping review</em> attempts to reduce this ambiguity by investigating the definitions of <em>deep learning</em> in 71 research publications on primary and secondary education from 1970 to 2018. The results show two conceptualisations of the term <em>deep learning</em>—1) <em>meaningful learning</em> and 2) <em>transfer of learning</em>—both based on cognitive learning perspectives. The term <em>deep learning</em> is used by researchers worldwide and is mainly investigated in the school subjects of science, languages and mathematics with samples of students between 13 and 16 years of age. <em>Deep learning</em> is also a prevalent term in current international education policy and national curriculum reform, thus deeply affecting the practice of teaching and learning in general education. Our review identifies a lack of studies investigating <em>deep learning</em> through perspectives other than cognitive learning theories and suggests that future research should emphasise applying embodied, affective, and social perspectives on learning in the wide array of school subjects, in lower primary education and in a variety of sociocultural contexts, to support the adaptation of <em>deep learning</em> to a general educational practice.</p> Øystein Winje Knut Løndal Copyright (c) 2020 Øystein Winje, Knut Løndal 2020-07-01 2020-07-01 5 1 25 41 10.7577/njcie.3798 Book Review: Theoretical and Practical Knowledge in Teacher Qualification – interconnections and tensions (Teoretiske og praktiske kunnskaper i lærerkvalifisering - sammenhenger og spenninger). Thorsen, K. E. & Michelet, S. (eds). Universitetsforlaget Beverley Goldshaft Copyright (c) 2020 Beverley Goldshaft 2020-12-29 2020-12-29 5 1 178 183 10.7577/njcie.3800 Developing Knowledge, competences and a research stance in initial teacher education in the Post-Bologna context <p>This paper draws on previous empirical work and reflections on initial teacher education after the implementation of the Bologna process in Portugal. It focuses on issues of knowledge and competences developed under the new legal framework, particularly as far as the research component is concerned. As initial teacher education occurs at a Master level, the research dimension was assumed as a key feature of the new model being practicum one of its key distinctive and most innovative elements. The need to enhance the quality of initial teacher education and to reinforce the link between theory and practice and between research and teaching was at the forefront of the restructuring process at the University of Minho, particularly regarding practicum. The paper concludes with a summary of the positive aspects and issues that deserve further attention.</p> Maria A. Flores Copyright (c) 2020 Maria A. Flores 2020-12-29 2020-12-29 5 1 90 104 10.7577/njcie.3777 Exploring Headway Pedagogies in Initial Teacher Education Through Collaborative Action Research into Processes of Learning: Experiences from Eritrea <p>Engaging prospective teachers in collaborative inquiry into their <em>own</em> processes of learning was the driving intention of the collaborative action research (CAR) course which was part of a teacher education program at a college of education in Eritrea in the academic year of 2018/2019. The course led by the first two authors was collaboratively designed and developed by the authors who were closely and regularly working as passionate learning community of educators who are committed to enact change in their own practices for the past seven years. Embracing the complexity of learning teacher educating we align with the notion of inquiry as a stance in learning to live up to the complexity. Accordingly, we engaged in an <em>intentional</em> collaborative self-study into our own practices of facilitating a course on inquiry. The aim of this paper is to articulate key experiences of committed collaborative learning in facilitating a course of inquiry. Employing a self-study methodology, we were engaged in individual and team reflections documented in our shared diary, regular meetings to discuss and develop the CAR process, and analyzing written feedbacks given by our student teachers (STs). In this article we attempt to explore headway pedagogies while we were collaboratively learning to facilitate and support a senior class of prospective teachers (n-27) carry out their CAR projects into their own processes of learning for four months. We argue that those experiences have critical implications in developing professional identity of prospective teachers, creatively overcome the theory-practice conundrum in teacher education by developing essential experiences that prospective teachers could creatively adapt in their school practices.</p> Khalid Mohammed Idris Samson Eskender Amanuel Yosief Berhane Demoz Kiflay Andemicael Copyright (c) 2020 Khalid Mohammed Idris, Samson Eskender, Amanuel Yosief, Berhane Demoz, Kiflay Andemicael 2020-12-29 2020-12-29 5 1 139 156 10.7577/njcie.3746