Nordic Journal of Comparative and International Education (NJCIE) <p><em>Nordic Journal of Comparative and International Education (NJCIE) </em>is the only journal in the Nordic countries specifically addressing themes within our field and serves as a connecting node for comparative scholars in, or interested in, the region. We invite papers that seek to analyze educational discourse, policy and practice and their implications for teaching and learning, and particularly invite papers investigating topics through an interdisciplinary lens focusing on new insights and fostering critical debate about the role of education in diverse societies. <em>NJCIE</em> is concerned with the interplay of local, national, regional and global contexts shaping education. The ways in which local understandings can bring to light the trends, effects and influences that exist in different contexts globally highlight the general understanding of Comparative and International Education in <em>NJCIE</em>.</p> <p><em>NJCIE</em> invites Nordic and international contributions alike. The journal includes research from all geographic regions in the world. The journal invites contributions in English and all official Nordic languages. <em>NJCIE</em> aims for four issues per year.</p> Oslo Metropolitan University & University of South-Eastern Norway en-US Nordic Journal of Comparative and International Education (NJCIE) 2535-4051 <p><strong>Declaration on copyright</strong></p><ul><li>The author/s will keep their copyright and right of reproduction of their own manuscript, with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, but give the journal a permanent right to 1) present the manuscript to the public in the original form in which it was digitally published and 2) to be registered and cited as the first publication of the manuscript.</li><li>The author itself must manage its financial reproduction rights in relation to any third-parties.</li><li> The journal does not provide any financial or other remuneration for contributions submitted.</li><li>Readers of the journal may print the manuscripts presented under the same conditions that apply to reproduction of a physical copy. This means that mass reproduction of physical copies or production of copies for commercial purposes is not permitted without the agreement of the author/s.</li></ul> Å velge bort læring i skolen til fordel for læring i praksis: En casestudie om veien frem til fagbrev via praksisbrev <p>This article focuses on the training practice scheme, a two-year apprenticeship scheme that was implemented as a measure to reduce dropouts from vocational education and training (VET). After completing a two-year apprenticeship, apprentices may continue their training to obtain a full trade certificate. In this article, we examine how the scheme contributes to inclusion in regular VET. Based on interviews with ten apprentices who continued their education and training in a regular apprenticeship after a two-year apprenticeship, and interviews with their supervisors in apprenticeship training, this article presents two case studies. The apprentices’ narratives about school reveal negative educational experiences, feelings of disengagement, failure and exclusion, leading both of them to withdraw from school and construct an identity as practically-oriented learners. During the first year of upper secondary education, both were offered a two-year apprenticeship in sales. The two case studies show how practice-oriented learning provided opportunities to experience success and mastery, a sense of belonging, and the feeling of being members of communities of practice. The article argues that these experiences contributed to a shift in the apprentices’ self-view and thereby created opportunities for learning and motivation to continue education and training.</p> Åshild Tårnesvik Evi Schmid Copyright (c) 2022 Åshild Tårnesvik, Evi Schmid 2022-09-20 2022-09-20 6 3 10.7577/njcie.4849 Stödpraktiker i relation till arbetsplatsförlagt lärande i svensk gymnasial lärlingsutbildning <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 11.0pt; line-height: 125%;">This article explores educational support practices during workplace-based learning in upper secondary apprenticeship education in Sweden. Many students in need of educational support attend upper secondary VET, but how they are supported in relation to workplace-based learning has not been investigated in any extensive way. 15 semi-structured interviews with upper secondary VET-school personnel were conducted. Through the use of concepts from the theory of practice architectures three different support projects embedded within three practices were identified: a workplace socialization project; a qualification project; and a social-pedagogical project. These support practices were conditioned by how students were viewed; the allocation of resources at the local schools, and the schools’ possibilities to influence the workplaces. The study concludes that support for workplace-based learning is shaped as a one-sided responsibility falling on the schools. Although apprenticeship education might fit some students in need of support, many of them are left without any support during the workplace-based learning part.</span></p> Enni Paul Copyright (c) 2022 Enni Paul 2022-09-19 2022-09-19 6 3 10.7577/njcie.4842 Interventions for Inclusion in TVET through Private-Public Development Partnership in Ethiopia and Zambia <p>The study is about reconfiguring Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) through Private-Public Development Partnership (PPDP) for the inclusion of disadvantaged groups in Ethiopia and Zambia. A PPDP is a cooperation between national and foreign actors targeted at development activities and is a governmental strategy to increase the standard of TVET, including strategies to include disadvantaged learners. This article focuses on two PPDPs, one comprising a TVET college in Ethiopia and another in Zambia. The aim is to analyse and compare the curricular strategies of these two PPDPs to revamp TVET for the inclusion of disadvantaged learners. Data was generated through document analysis, interviews and focus groups. The findings indicate that both PPDPs served as an intervention to the TVET institutions, thereby including disadvantaged learners in contexts of huge inequality of opportunities. The article points to tensions relating to inclusion, particularly about how global educational policy trends contend with the realities in local labour markets and the needs of TVET graduates who will work therein. </p> Samson Melesse Aimee Haley Gun-Britt Wärvik Copyright (c) 2022 Samson Melesse, Aimee Haley, Gun-Britt Wärvik 2022-09-19 2022-09-19 6 3 10.7577/njcie.4811 VET and the “Competency-Tetris” <p>The purpose of the article is to empirically analyse how the idea of inclusion is portrayed within the boundaries of the “Competency-Tetris”: a metaphor that should not be confused with the <em>Tetris</em>® game but used to theoretically capture individualised, competency-based, and managerially governed Vocational Education and Training (VET). We argue that the meaning of social inclusion within and through VET is unclear and vested by the human capital doctrines and the neoliberal assumptions from which it is derived. Whom does inclusion in VET involve, and to what and where does inclusion take place? Employing a design-based research approach, we used abductive applications to analyse data produced through participatory ethnographic observations (N=32) and interviews (N=12). The results identified four abstracted themes: (1) Fitting the workforce auction; (2) Multi-professional support trajectories; (3) Inclusion of qualification measures; and (4) Social and cultural learning communities. The first three abstracted themes suggest that the Competency-Tetris is a social divider of students based on a “go-forward” engine with social engineering at its fore. That is, the desired boundaries between VET and work are not strengthened, and the question of enabling equal learning for all students faces a U-turn. Thus, the economic value accumulated in competency-based qualification measures is accentuated. The latter abstracted theme identifies a different, albeit obscured, aspiration: human encounters requiring dignity, mutual respect, social generosity, and developmental sustainable ecology are increasingly approached as part of, within, and through VET.</p> Niklas Rosenblad Birgit Schaffar Erika Löfström Copyright (c) 2022 Niklas Rosenblad, Birgit Schaffar, Erika Löfström 2022-09-19 2022-09-19 6 3 10.7577/njcie.4835 National Policy for Internationalisation in Higher Education <p>The impetus of this study is to explore the internationalisation of higher education policy in Mozambique at a national level. Internationalisation has been one of the major themes of discussion across countries but except for South Africa, it is rarely researched in sub-Saharan Africa from the perspective of the policy of higher education at a national level. This study is qualitative and applies the policy analysis method. Data derive from higher education policy documents and semi-structured interviews with policy-makers. Two research questions are asked. First, how do policy-makers understand and strategise the internationalisation of higher education in Mozambique? Second, what are the rationales and challenges for undertaking internationalisation of higher education? The findings reveal that internationalisation is understood as mobility of students and staff, establishment of agreements and cooperation and integration of higher education in the Southern African Development Community and worldwide. The findings further reveal that the rationales for undertaking internationalisation of higher education policy encompass quality, academic training, competitiveness, prestige, and knowledge production. An ideological mismatch in the strategies of the internationalisation between policy-makers and policy documents was noted, identifying opportunities for a more creative approach. </p> <p> </p> Charnaldo Ndaipa Kristina Edström Lars Geschwind Copyright (c) 2022 Charnaldo Ndaipa, Kristina Edström, Lars Geschwind 2022-06-02 2022-06-02 6 3 10.7577/njcie.4763 Students’ understanding of legal citizenship and co-citizenship concepts <p>This article presents findings from a research project aimed at exploring youth understandings of two Norwegian words for citizen: statsborger and medborger, translated as legal citizen and co-citizen. The topic was explored through group interviews with 10th grade students in three schools. The findings are analysed through the lens of subject positions and capabilities, with the results showing that students appropriate categories and storylines within public debate in order to frame different citizen subject positions as either one of ‘us’ or ‘them’. Dichotomies and overlaps are also visible in descriptions of citizen capabilities as either legal, ideal, or societal. Legal capabilities, understood as the juridically defined rights of majority and minority legal citizens and co-citizens, are less clear to students and are at times obscured by societal capabilities, or the rhetoric within public debate which may hinder minority capabilities. Additionally, ideal capabilities, or democratic values, often stand in conflict with the rhetoric of public debate. The main implication of these research findings is that a citizenship lens allows for a nuanced exploration of citizen subject positions and attendant capabilities within a democracy, including exploration of the challenges that minority citizens may face. Being explicit about the who (subject position), what (categories), and how (storylines) of democratic participation will allow students a more critical understanding of citizenship than the predominantly values centred discussions which are often a staple of citizenship education.</p> Kerenina K. Dansholm Copyright (c) 2022 Kerenina K. Dansholm 2022-08-16 2022-08-16 6 3 10.7577/njcie.4747 Quality of Pre-School Teacher Education in Ethiopia and its Implication for Quality Learning Outcomes <p>This study looks at the quality of preschool teacher education in Ethiopia in view of three basic components: curriculum relevance, profiles of teacher educators, and the selection and recruitment of candidates. The study adopted a case study design guided by competency-based teacher development theory and collected data through documentary analysis (the curriculum and recruitment guideline), and interviews of five professionals. The findings showed that the preschool teacher education curriculum has alignment gaps in four major aspects: (a) the preschool teacher education curriculum focused on subject area contents rather than on holistic child development, (b) the preschool teacher education curriculum overlooked motor skills as well as socio-emotional development categories, and (c) languages of instructions at preschool teacher education and preschool level are different (English and mother tongue respectively). Besides, invited professionals from other departments offer 36 of the 42 courses but lacked appropriate professional orientation and experiences to prepare the less capable candidates admitted to the program. Accordingly, policy intervention to make appropriate amendments in the curriculum, staff profiles and practicum components, and further research on views of graduates and relevant stakeholders were identified as areas of further endeavors.</p> Asfaw Abraha Binyam Sisay Mendisu Copyright (c) 2022 Asfaw Abraha, Binyam Sisay 2022-06-27 2022-06-27 6 3 10.7577/njcie.4625 Editorial Introduction - Digital Competence in Teacher Education across Europe Adrian McDonagh Tonje H. Giæver Louise Mifsud Josephine Milton Copyright (c) 2021 Adrian McDonagh, Tonje H. Giæver , Louise Mifsud , Josephine Milton 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 6 3 1 4 10.7577/njcie.4604 Scientization of international educational development Teklu Abate Bekele Copyright (c) 2021 Teklu Abate Bekele 2021-10-26 2021-10-26 6 3 1 5 10.7577/njcie.4596 Book review Bendik Fredriksen Copyright (c) 2021 Bendik Fredriksen 2021-08-13 2021-08-13 6 3 86 89 10.7577/njcie.4520 Narrative Inquiry as an Arena for (Polish) Caregivers’ Retelling and Re-experiencing of Norwegian Kindergarten <p>This study shows how conducting a narrative inquiry with migrant parents not only serves as a means of collecting their experiences of kindergarten services but also opens up a communicative space that allows for engagement with stories different from one’s own, and thus allows for the re-experiencing of the services provided. The presented re-experiences were ultimately found to be necessary for the participating parents to understand the values and knowledge underpinning kindergarten practices and routines, and thus to engage meaningfully and authentically with kindergartens. In the material presented, re-experiencing comprises the process of relating to the retold narrative’s temporality and sociality, which are oriented toward facilitating engagement with other people’s stories, as well as with one’s own and others from the past. The conclusion drawn was that the communicative spaces created through narrative inquiry have the potential to support kindergarten’s work in enhancing authentic partnerships with (particularly migrant) parents and addressing the democratic deficit in the involvement of (migrant) parents. Diverse ways of using narrative inquiry as facilitating parental engagement in the synergy between academia and the early childhood education sector are also reviewed.</p> Alicja Sadownik Copyright (c) 2022 Alicja Sadownik 2022-01-18 2022-01-18 6 3 10.7577/njcie.4503 Problematizing Scientization in International Organizations <p>Comparative education studies examined the roles multilateral organizations and non-governmental organizations play in global governance and international development. Emphasis has been given to their engagements both at policy and practice levels as well as their impacts. Generally, the mechanisms international organizations use to govern education and development seem qualitatively to change over time. The most recent emerging research trajectory explains how international organizations primarily use the power of scientific knowledge for organizational legitimacy, credibility, and impact. This is referred to in the literature as soft governance, epistemic governance, scientization, or scientific multilateralism, as it significantly relies on the authority of scientific knowledge as opposed to hard, financial preconditions, for global governance and development. Our understanding of scientization is still in its ‘infancy’, partly due to its relatively recent emergence and partly due to the use of varied indicators to assess it across organizational types. To contribute toward further theorization, this study problematizes scientization in international organizations, with a focus on multilateral, intergovernmental organizations. The study is organized around answering this overarching question: What are the conceptual and methodological attributes or features of scientization in international organizations? Using sociological theories and conceptions of policymaking and transfer, it discusses core substantive, methodological, and theoretical issues of scientization having relevance for further research.</p> Teklu Abate Bekele Copyright (c) 2021 Teklu Abate Bekele 2021-10-26 2021-10-26 6 3 6 22 10.7577/njcie.4492 Mind the gaps: On the North/South Nexus in the ‘Sport for Development and Peace’ discourse <p>In this conceptual article, we present the “Sport for Development and Peace” (SDP) discourse as a case of scientific rationalization. First, we shed light on the ongoing theory debate around the “global/local problematique” in globalization and global policy research in comparative and international education. We then link up with the SDP discourse and show that academic work mostly features research related to the fact that the majority of the SDP programmes and ways of implementing them have been conceptualized in the Global North, yet are to be implemented in the Global South. In that context, we illustrate International Organizations as sites of scientized knowledge production and translation. Scientific rationalization occurs when specialized technical knowledge and management techniques enter the discourse.</p> Kabanda Mwansa Florian Kiuppis Copyright (c) 2021 Kabanda Mwansa, Florian Kiuppis 2021-10-26 2021-10-26 6 3 23 35 10.7577/njcie.4464 North-South collaboration: On the making of a Center for Comparative Education and Policy Studies at Addis Ababa University <p>The Ethiopian educational system has made promising advancements since the turn of the century. Despite this progress, education continues to grapple with a myriad of challenges, including differences in educational access and quality, insecure living conditions, and gender inequalities. Research can offer knowledge for tackling these challenges, but often it is knowledge from the global North that dominates, despite its questionable relevance to the global South. Therefore, this study analyses the evolvement of a Center for Comparative Education and Policy Studies, situated in an Ethiopian higher education context and supported by the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA), and how the Center has contributed to developing knowledge that is relevant to local contexts. An important outcome of the Center was the development of a doctoral program in International and Comparative Education and the knowledge produced in the doctoral theses that emerged. Our inquiry concerns how Southern theory contributes to an increased understanding of the development of the Center and the relevance of the doctoral theses. The findings underscore the importance of expanding Southern knowledge in education and the need for further reflection on the geopolitics of knowledge in research capacity development cooperation. </p> Alebachew Kemisso Haybano Aimee Haley Sverker Lindblad Gun-Britt Wärvik Copyright (c) 2021 Alebachew Kemisso Haybano, Aimee Haley, Sverker Lindblad, Gun-Britt Wärvik 2021-10-26 2021-10-26 6 3 36 52 10.7577/njcie.4357 Establishing a multicultural learning environment based on active knowledge exchange and mutual trust between teachers and students <div><span lang="EN-GB">Cultural and linguistic composition of the population of Iceland is constantly expanding. This brings new opportunities as well as challenges to the educational institutions that need to adapt to the new reality. Culturally responsive teaching and assessment methods have become increasingly important to motivate all students and provide them with equal opportunities. The research project, <em>“It is not only the Teacher who is Talking; It is an Exchange”</em>, was the first extensive qualitative study conducted in Icelandic universities to investigate immigrant students’ experiences of the learning environments and teaching methods. Forty-one first-generation immigrants participated in the study. The findings provided a deep insight into immigrant students’ experiences of being university students. The study brought to the forefront challenges that the participants experienced during the educational process, including language related issues, shortage of appropriate educational support and lack of clear policies regarding special assistance during examination periods. Furthermore, the study highlighted the importance of establishing a multicultural learning environment where every student has equal access and opportunity for personal development.&nbsp;</span></div> Artëm Ingmar Benediktsson Copyright (c) 2021 Artëm Ingmar Benediktsson 2021-05-31 2021-05-31 6 3 79 85 10.7577/njcie.4348