Nordic Journal of Comparative and International Education (NJCIE) <p><em>Nordic Journal of Comparative and International Education (NJCIE) </em>is the only journal in the Nordic countries specifically addressing themes within our field and serves as a connecting node for comparative scholars in, or interested in, the region. We invite papers that&nbsp;seek to analyze educational discourse, policy and practice and their implications for teaching and learning, and particularly invites papers investigating topics through an interdisciplinary lens focusing on new insights and fostering critical debate about the role of education in diverse societies. <em>NJCIE</em> is concerned with the interplay of local, national, regional and global contexts shaping education. The ways in which local understandings can bring to light the trends, effects and influences that exist in different contexts globally highlight the general understanding of Comparative and International Education in <em>NJCIE</em>.</p> <p><em>NJCIE</em> invites Nordic and international contributions alike. The journal includes research from all geographic regions in the world. The journal invites contributions in English and all official Nordic languages. <em>NJCIE</em> aims for four issues per year.</p> en-US <p><strong>Declaration on copyright</strong></p><ul><li>The author/s will keep their copyright and right of reproduction of their own manuscript, with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, but give the journal a permanent right to 1) present the manuscript to the public in the original form in which it was digitally published and 2) to be registered and cited as the first publication of the manuscript.</li><li>The author itself must manage its financial reproduction rights in relation to any third-parties.</li><li> The journal does not provide any financial or other remuneration for contributions submitted.</li><li>Readers of the journal may print the manuscripts presented under the same conditions that apply to reproduction of a physical copy. This means that mass reproduction of physical copies or production of copies for commercial purposes is not permitted without the agreement of the author/s.</li></ul> (Halla Holmarsdottir) (Heidi Biseth) Tue, 18 Jan 2022 11:12:21 +0100 OJS 60 National Policy for Internationalisation in Higher Education <p>The impetus of this study is to explore the internationalisation of higher education policy in Mozambique at a national level. Internationalisation has been one of the major themes of discussion across countries but except for South Africa, it is rarely researched in sub-Saharan Africa from the perspective of the policy of higher education at a national level. This study is qualitative and applies the policy analysis method. Data derive from higher education policy documents and semi-structured interviews with policy-makers. Two research questions are asked. First, how do policy-makers understand and strategise the internationalisation of higher education in Mozambique? Second, what are the rationales and challenges for undertaking internationalisation of higher education? The findings reveal that internationalisation is understood as mobility of students and staff, establishment of agreements and cooperation and integration of higher education in the Southern African Development Community and worldwide. The findings further reveal that the rationales for undertaking internationalisation of higher education policy encompass quality, academic training, competitiveness, prestige, and knowledge production. An ideological mismatch in the strategies of the internationalisation between policy-makers and policy documents was noted, identifying opportunities for a more creative approach. </p> <p> </p> Charnaldo Ndaipa, Kristina Edström, Lars Geschwind Copyright (c) 2022 Charnaldo Ndaipa, Kristina Edström, Lars Geschwind Thu, 02 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Quality of Pre-School Teacher Education in Ethiopia and its Implication for Quality Learning Outcomes <p>This study looks at the quality of preschool teacher education in Ethiopia in view of three basic components: curriculum relevance, profiles of teacher educators, and the selection and recruitment of candidates. The study adopted a case study design guided by competency-based teacher development theory and collected data through documentary analysis (the curriculum and recruitment guideline), and interviews of five professionals. The findings showed that the preschool teacher education curriculum has alignment gaps in four major aspects: (a) the preschool teacher education curriculum focused on subject area contents rather than on holistic child development, (b) the preschool teacher education curriculum overlooked motor skills as well as socio-emotional development categories, and (c) languages of instructions at preschool teacher education and preschool level are different (English and mother tongue respectively). Besides, invited professionals from other departments offer 36 of the 42 courses but lacked appropriate professional orientation and experiences to prepare the less capable candidates admitted to the program. Accordingly, policy intervention to make appropriate amendments in the curriculum, staff profiles and practicum components, and further research on views of graduates and relevant stakeholders were identified as areas of further endeavors.</p> Asfaw Abraha, Binyam Sisay Mendisu Copyright (c) 2022 Asfaw Abraha, Binyam Sisay Mon, 27 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Editorial Introduction - Digital Competence in Teacher Education across Europe Adrian McDonagh, Tonje H. Giæver , Louise Mifsud , Josephine Milton Copyright (c) 2021 Adrian McDonagh, Tonje H. Giæver , Louise Mifsud , Josephine Milton Tue, 30 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Scientization of international educational development Teklu Abate Bekele Copyright (c) 2021 Teklu Abate Bekele Tue, 26 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Book review Bendik Fredriksen Copyright (c) 2021 Bendik Fredriksen Fri, 13 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Narrative Inquiry as an Arena for (Polish) Caregivers’ Retelling and Re-experiencing of Norwegian Kindergarten <p>This study shows how conducting a narrative inquiry with migrant parents not only serves as a means of collecting their experiences of kindergarten services but also opens up a communicative space that allows for engagement with stories different from one’s own, and thus allows for the re-experiencing of the services provided. The presented re-experiences were ultimately found to be necessary for the participating parents to understand the values and knowledge underpinning kindergarten practices and routines, and thus to engage meaningfully and authentically with kindergartens. In the material presented, re-experiencing comprises the process of relating to the retold narrative’s temporality and sociality, which are oriented toward facilitating engagement with other people’s stories, as well as with one’s own and others from the past. The conclusion drawn was that the communicative spaces created through narrative inquiry have the potential to support kindergarten’s work in enhancing authentic partnerships with (particularly migrant) parents and addressing the democratic deficit in the involvement of (migrant) parents. Diverse ways of using narrative inquiry as facilitating parental engagement in the synergy between academia and the early childhood education sector are also reviewed.</p> Alicja Sadownik Copyright (c) 2022 Alicja Sadownik Tue, 18 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0100 Problematizing Scientization in International Organizations <p>Comparative education studies examined the roles multilateral organizations and non-governmental organizations play in global governance and international development. Emphasis has been given to their engagements both at policy and practice levels as well as their impacts. Generally, the mechanisms international organizations use to govern education and development seem qualitatively to change over time. The most recent emerging research trajectory explains how international organizations primarily use the power of scientific knowledge for organizational legitimacy, credibility, and impact. This is referred to in the literature as soft governance, epistemic governance, scientization, or scientific multilateralism, as it significantly relies on the authority of scientific knowledge as opposed to hard, financial preconditions, for global governance and development. Our understanding of scientization is still in its ‘infancy’, partly due to its relatively recent emergence and partly due to the use of varied indicators to assess it across organizational types. To contribute toward further theorization, this study problematizes scientization in international organizations, with a focus on multilateral, intergovernmental organizations. The study is organized around answering this overarching question: What are the conceptual and methodological attributes or features of scientization in international organizations? Using sociological theories and conceptions of policymaking and transfer, it discusses core substantive, methodological, and theoretical issues of scientization having relevance for further research.</p> Teklu Abate Bekele Copyright (c) 2021 Teklu Abate Bekele Tue, 26 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Mind the gaps: On the North/South Nexus in the ‘Sport for Development and Peace’ discourse <p>In this conceptual article, we present the “Sport for Development and Peace” (SDP) discourse as a case of scientific rationalization. First, we shed light on the ongoing theory debate around the “global/local problematique” in globalization and global policy research in comparative and international education. We then link up with the SDP discourse and show that academic work mostly features research related to the fact that the majority of the SDP programmes and ways of implementing them have been conceptualized in the Global North, yet are to be implemented in the Global South. In that context, we illustrate International Organizations as sites of scientized knowledge production and translation. Scientific rationalization occurs when specialized technical knowledge and management techniques enter the discourse.</p> Kabanda Mwansa, Florian Kiuppis Copyright (c) 2021 Kabanda Mwansa, Florian Kiuppis Tue, 26 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200 North-South collaboration: On the making of a Center for Comparative Education and Policy Studies at Addis Ababa University <p>The Ethiopian educational system has made promising advancements since the turn of the century. Despite this progress, education continues to grapple with a myriad of challenges, including differences in educational access and quality, insecure living conditions, and gender inequalities. Research can offer knowledge for tackling these challenges, but often it is knowledge from the global North that dominates, despite its questionable relevance to the global South. Therefore, this study analyses the evolvement of a Center for Comparative Education and Policy Studies, situated in an Ethiopian higher education context and supported by the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA), and how the Center has contributed to developing knowledge that is relevant to local contexts. An important outcome of the Center was the development of a doctoral program in International and Comparative Education and the knowledge produced in the doctoral theses that emerged. Our inquiry concerns how Southern theory contributes to an increased understanding of the development of the Center and the relevance of the doctoral theses. The findings underscore the importance of expanding Southern knowledge in education and the need for further reflection on the geopolitics of knowledge in research capacity development cooperation. </p> Alebachew Kemisso Haybano, Aimee Haley, Sverker Lindblad, Gun-Britt Wärvik Copyright (c) 2021 Alebachew Kemisso Haybano, Aimee Haley, Sverker Lindblad, Gun-Britt Wärvik Tue, 26 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Establishing a multicultural learning environment based on active knowledge exchange and mutual trust between teachers and students <div><span lang="EN-GB">Cultural and linguistic composition of the population of Iceland is constantly expanding. This brings new opportunities as well as challenges to the educational institutions that need to adapt to the new reality. Culturally responsive teaching and assessment methods have become increasingly important to motivate all students and provide them with equal opportunities. The research project, <em>“It is not only the Teacher who is Talking; It is an Exchange”</em>, was the first extensive qualitative study conducted in Icelandic universities to investigate immigrant students’ experiences of the learning environments and teaching methods. Forty-one first-generation immigrants participated in the study. The findings provided a deep insight into immigrant students’ experiences of being university students. The study brought to the forefront challenges that the participants experienced during the educational process, including language related issues, shortage of appropriate educational support and lack of clear policies regarding special assistance during examination periods. Furthermore, the study highlighted the importance of establishing a multicultural learning environment where every student has equal access and opportunity for personal development.&nbsp;</span></div> Artëm Ingmar Benediktsson Copyright (c) 2021 Artëm Ingmar Benediktsson Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 ‘It is like a hammer and toothbrush; you need it for the rest of your life’ – Five Norwegian teachers’ experiences of working at a ‘thinking school’ <p>This article investigates how a group of Norwegian teachers experience working at a ‘thinking school’ (i.e. a school that cooperates with UK-based consultancy Thinking Matters). The context is curriculum development in Norway, where schools and teachers are given increasing freedom in terms of what methods to apply and what content to teach while being expected to reflect and develop collectively as professional communities. In this setting, it is interesting to see how teachers utilise the tools and models offered by an external actor and how they negotiate between these and their own pedagogical ideas as well as the demands put on them by the curriculum. We approached this study by firstly analysing two documents published by Thinking Matters, and secondly by asking how the teachers experience the effects of the thinking school approach on pupils’ learning and themselves as professional teachers. We interviewed five teachers who emphasised several positive aspects of working within the thinking school approach. However, in this article, we also identify some tensions resulting from the adoption of a whole-school approach that emphasises the methods that teachers should use and that pupils should master as a way of achieving the overarching aims of the curriculum.</p> Erik Ryen, Kirsti Marie Jegstad Copyright (c) 2022 Erik Ryen, Kirsti Marie Jegstad Sat, 05 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0100 Digital competences in Nordic teacher education <p>We investigate how digital competences are being integrated into teacher education (TE) across the Nordic countries - Denmark, Sweden, Norway, and Finland in this article. We make the case that there has been an expansion of the agenda for digital competences in education. Digital competences have developed from an information and communication technology perspective to also include a critical, social, and creative understanding of digital technologies and computing competences. Methodologically, we make use of doc-ument analyses, qualitative questionnaires, and interviews with participants in the field. With an emphasis on Danish TE, we explore how TE in the Nordic countries has responded to this agenda on policy and institutional levels. We suggest that the Danish approach to the expanded agenda can augment tendencies and challenges in Nordic responses to digitalisation in TE. A key finding is that Nordic countries respond to the expanded agenda in different ways regarding policy regulation, content areas, and how digital com-petences are organised and distributed on a local level. Tendencies and challenges identified across Nordic countries are valuable to ensure the continual development of teachers’ digital competences.</p> Sanne Lisborg, Vici Daphne Händel, Vibeke Schrøder, Mads Middelboe Rehder Copyright (c) 2021 Sanne Lisborg, Vici Daphne Händel, Vibeke Schrøder, Mads Middelboe Rehder Tue, 30 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Awareness and knowledge of cyberethics: A study of preservice teachers in Malta, Norway, and Spain <p>This paper explores the awareness and knowledge of cyberethics held by pre-service teachers across three European countries. The study was conducted via an online survey and yielded 1,131 responses from pre-service teachers in Malta, Norway, and Spain. The facets of cyberethics included in this study focused on behaving responsibly online, safeguarding privacy, respecting copyright, seeking consent of friends before posting images or videos on social media platforms, and considering their professional identity as future teachers when posting online. The findings indicate that pre-service teachers reported relatively similar levels of competence in applying copyright and respecting privacy rules with pre-service teachers in Malta and Norway reporting higher degrees of knowledge and awareness than their counterparts in Spain. Malta had the most participants who reported that they always considered the potential impact that posting media online may have on their professional teaching career, followed by Norway. Spain had the largest number of pre-service teachers who stated that they rarely or never thought about this impact on their teaching career. This indicates a lack of awareness of behaving in an exemplary manner online in a more public and professional capacity. Our findings highlight the need for pre-service teachers’ knowledge of cyberethics to be prioritised during Initial Teacher Education (ITE), especially at such a time when their professional identity is being shaped. A clear tension was noted between the perceived knowledge or competence and the declared practices of some pre-service teachers concerning the cyberethics items featured in the study. In light of our findings, we recommend that all ITE programmes include digital competence and cyberethics components in their curricula. This would enable pre-service teachers to develop an emerging professional and digital identity to face the challenges of becoming teachers in the 21st century.</p> Josephine Milton, Tonje Hilde Giæver, Louise Mifsud, Héctor Hernández Gassó Copyright (c) 2021 Josephine Milton, Tonje Hilde Giæver, Louise Mifsud, Héctor Hernández Gassó Tue, 30 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Pre-service Teachers' Digital Experiences through Digital Pedagogical Practices in Norway <p>Digital skills are one of the key competences outlined in The European Reference Framework of Key Competences for Lifelong Learning prescribed by the EU in 2006. Integration of digital tools and resources into the classroom results in more platforms for teaching and learning activities. Teacher training programmes prepare pre-service teachers with pedagogical competencies and skills necessary for their future practices. This paper shows that pre-service teachers could overcome the pedagogical challenges during COVID-19 teaching by updating their present and future classroom teaching strategies around digital literacy. To explore further how these new teaching circumstances are understood and reflected on by pre-service teachers, the researchers collected written reflections of 52 pre-service teachers in Norway using an open-ended survey about their digital integration experiences in their practicum. This paper offers analyses of the reflections inductively to reveal the teachers’ process of development of their classroom teaching strategies as influenced by new digitalisation-related experiences. The findings show low levels of digital integration according to the SAMR model but moderate to high levels of satisfaction among pre-service teachers of digital practices. In the light of these findings, this study offers pedagogical technological implications for teachers and teacher educators who work with teacher education curricula.</p> Pattamawan Jimarkon, Phalangchok Wanphet, Kenan Dikilitas Copyright (c) 2021 Pattamawan Jimarkon, Phalangchok Wanphet, Kenan Dikilitas Tue, 30 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0100 From digital competence to Professional Digital Competence <p>The authors of this article have collaborated as part of a steering group for Norwegian state-funded research and development project designed to enhance the professional digital competence (PDC) of both teacher educators, practising, and student teachers. In this article, we give voice to students’ experiences of their PDC development during teacher education (TE). We investigate their ideas on how TE might be developed to prepare them better for professional careers in a digital context. The participants are studying at a Norwegian university where, from 2018 to 2021, PDC has become a major area of focus as part of the aforementioned project. The data consist of four group interviews with 17 students from different campuses. We find that student teachers employ a broad range of digital technologies during TE. They experience a diversity of digital didactical practices and engage in thematic discussions concerning digitalization. They also utilise many technologies and apply the digital knowledge they have acquired in their personal lives. While some of them request more technical support during TE, most want to see TE engaging them in more critical discussions about the educational opportunities and challenges that digitalization offers. We discuss some of the dilemmas that TE must address to respond to these findings. In particular, we elaborate on how students’ digital experiences can be used as a resource when preparing for their professional roles as teachers.</p> Aslaug Grov Almås, Agnete Andersen Bueie, Toril Aagaard Copyright (c) 2021 Aslaug Grov Almås, Agnete Andersen Bueie, Toril Aagaard Tue, 30 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0100