Nordic Journal of Comparative and International Education (NJCIE) <p><em>Nordic Journal of Comparative and International Education (NJCIE) </em>is the only journal in the Nordic countries specifically addressing themes within our field and serves as a connecting node for comparative scholars in, or interested in, the region. We invite papers that&nbsp;seek to analyze educational discourse, policy and practice and their implications for teaching and learning, and particularly invites papers investigating topics through an interdisciplinary lens focusing on new insights and fostering critical debate about the role of education in diverse societies. <em>NJCIE</em> is concerned with the interplay of local, national, regional and global contexts shaping education. The ways in which local understandings can bring to light the trends, effects and influences that exist in different contexts globally highlight the general understanding of Comparative and International Education in <em>NJCIE</em>.</p> <p><em>NJCIE</em> invites Nordic and international contributions alike. The journal includes research from all geographic regions in the world. The journal invites contributions in English and all official Nordic languages. <em>NJCIE</em> aims for four issues per year.</p> en-US <p><strong>Declaration on copyright</strong></p><ul><li>The author/s will keep their copyright and right of reproduction of their own manuscript, with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, but give the journal a permanent right to 1) present the manuscript to the public in the original form in which it was digitally published and 2) to be registered and cited as the first publication of the manuscript.</li><li>The author itself must manage its financial reproduction rights in relation to any third-parties.</li><li> The journal does not provide any financial or other remuneration for contributions submitted.</li><li>Readers of the journal may print the manuscripts presented under the same conditions that apply to reproduction of a physical copy. This means that mass reproduction of physical copies or production of copies for commercial purposes is not permitted without the agreement of the author/s.</li></ul> (Halla Holmarsdottir) (Heidi Biseth) Tue, 30 Nov 2021 20:41:04 +0100 OJS 60 Editorial Introduction - Digital Competence in Teacher Education across Europe Adrian McDonagh, Tonje H. Giæver , Louise Mifsud , Josephine Milton Copyright (c) 2021 Adrian McDonagh, Tonje H. Giæver , Louise Mifsud , Josephine Milton Tue, 30 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Scientization of international educational development Teklu Abate Bekele Copyright (c) 2021 Teklu Abate Bekele Tue, 26 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Book review Bendik Fredriksen Copyright (c) 2021 Bendik Fredriksen Fri, 13 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Problematizing Scientization in International Organizations <p>Comparative education studies examined the roles multilateral organizations and non-governmental organizations play in global governance and international development. Emphasis has been given to their engagements both at policy and practice levels as well as their impacts. Generally, the mechanisms international organizations use to govern education and development seem qualitatively to change over time. The most recent emerging research trajectory explains how international organizations primarily use the power of scientific knowledge for organizational legitimacy, credibility, and impact. This is referred to in the literature as soft governance, epistemic governance, scientization, or scientific multilateralism, as it significantly relies on the authority of scientific knowledge as opposed to hard, financial preconditions, for global governance and development. Our understanding of scientization is still in its ‘infancy’, partly due to its relatively recent emergence and partly due to the use of varied indicators to assess it across organizational types. To contribute toward further theorization, this study problematizes scientization in international organizations, with a focus on multilateral, intergovernmental organizations. The study is organized around answering this overarching question: What are the conceptual and methodological attributes or features of scientization in international organizations? Using sociological theories and conceptions of policymaking and transfer, it discusses core substantive, methodological, and theoretical issues of scientization having relevance for further research.</p> Teklu Abate Bekele Copyright (c) 2021 Teklu Abate Bekele Tue, 26 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Mind the gaps: On the North/South Nexus in the ‘Sport for Development and Peace’ discourse <p>In this conceptual article, we present the “Sport for Development and Peace” (SDP) discourse as a case of scientific rationalization. First, we shed light on the ongoing theory debate around the “global/local problematique” in globalization and global policy research in comparative and international education. We then link up with the SDP discourse and show that academic work mostly features research related to the fact that the majority of the SDP programmes and ways of implementing them have been conceptualized in the Global North, yet are to be implemented in the Global South. In that context, we illustrate International Organizations as sites of scientized knowledge production and translation. Scientific rationalization occurs when specialized technical knowledge and management techniques enter the discourse.</p> Kabanda Mwansa, Florian Kiuppis Copyright (c) 2021 Kabanda Mwansa, Florian Kiuppis Tue, 26 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200 North-South collaboration: On the making of a Center for Comparative Education and Policy Studies at Addis Ababa University <p>The Ethiopian educational system has made promising advancements since the turn of the century. Despite this progress, education continues to grapple with a myriad of challenges, including differences in educational access and quality, insecure living conditions, and gender inequalities. Research can offer knowledge for tackling these challenges, but often it is knowledge from the global North that dominates, despite its questionable relevance to the global South. Therefore, this study analyses the evolvement of a Center for Comparative Education and Policy Studies, situated in an Ethiopian higher education context and supported by the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA), and how the Center has contributed to developing knowledge that is relevant to local contexts. An important outcome of the Center was the development of a doctoral program in International and Comparative Education and the knowledge produced in the doctoral theses that emerged. Our inquiry concerns how Southern theory contributes to an increased understanding of the development of the Center and the relevance of the doctoral theses. The findings underscore the importance of expanding Southern knowledge in education and the need for further reflection on the geopolitics of knowledge in research capacity development cooperation. </p> Alebachew Kemisso Haybano, Aimee Haley, Sverker Lindblad, Gun-Britt Wärvik Copyright (c) 2021 Alebachew Kemisso Haybano, Aimee Haley, Sverker Lindblad, Gun-Britt Wärvik Tue, 26 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Establishing a multicultural learning environment based on active knowledge exchange and mutual trust between teachers and students <div><span lang="EN-GB">Cultural and linguistic composition of the population of Iceland is constantly expanding. This brings new opportunities as well as challenges to the educational institutions that need to adapt to the new reality. Culturally responsive teaching and assessment methods have become increasingly important to motivate all students and provide them with equal opportunities. The research project, <em>“It is not only the Teacher who is Talking; It is an Exchange”</em>, was the first extensive qualitative study conducted in Icelandic universities to investigate immigrant students’ experiences of the learning environments and teaching methods. Forty-one first-generation immigrants participated in the study. The findings provided a deep insight into immigrant students’ experiences of being university students. The study brought to the forefront challenges that the participants experienced during the educational process, including language related issues, shortage of appropriate educational support and lack of clear policies regarding special assistance during examination periods. Furthermore, the study highlighted the importance of establishing a multicultural learning environment where every student has equal access and opportunity for personal development.&nbsp;</span></div> Artëm Ingmar Benediktsson Copyright (c) 2021 Artëm Ingmar Benediktsson Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Digital competences in Nordic teacher education <p>We investigate how digital competences are being integrated into teacher education (TE) across the Nordic countries - Denmark, Sweden, Norway, and Finland in this article. We make the case that there has been an expansion of the agenda for digital competences in education. Digital competences have developed from an information and communication technology perspective to also include a critical, social, and creative understanding of digital technologies and computing competences. Methodologically, we make use of doc-ument analyses, qualitative questionnaires, and interviews with participants in the field. With an emphasis on Danish TE, we explore how TE in the Nordic countries has responded to this agenda on policy and institutional levels. We suggest that the Danish approach to the expanded agenda can augment tendencies and challenges in Nordic responses to digitalisation in TE. A key finding is that Nordic countries respond to the expanded agenda in different ways regarding policy regulation, content areas, and how digital com-petences are organised and distributed on a local level. Tendencies and challenges identified across Nordic countries are valuable to ensure the continual development of teachers’ digital competences.</p> Sanne Lisborg, Vici Daphne Händel, Vibeke Schrøder, Mads Middelboe Rehder Copyright (c) 2021 Sanne Lisborg, Vici Daphne Händel, Vibeke Schrøder, Mads Middelboe Rehder Tue, 30 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Awareness and knowledge of cyberethics: A study of preservice teachers in Malta, Norway, and Spain <p>This paper explores the awareness and knowledge of cyberethics held by pre-service teachers across three European countries. The study was conducted via an online survey and yielded 1,131 responses from pre-service teachers in Malta, Norway, and Spain. The facets of cyberethics included in this study focused on behaving responsibly online, safeguarding privacy, respecting copyright, seeking consent of friends before posting images or videos on social media platforms, and considering their professional identity as future teachers when posting online. The findings indicate that pre-service teachers reported relatively similar levels of competence in applying copyright and respecting privacy rules with pre-service teachers in Malta and Norway reporting higher degrees of knowledge and awareness than their counterparts in Spain. Malta had the most participants who reported that they always considered the potential impact that posting media online may have on their professional teaching career, followed by Norway. Spain had the largest number of pre-service teachers who stated that they rarely or never thought about this impact on their teaching career. This indicates a lack of awareness of behaving in an exemplary manner online in a more public and professional capacity. Our findings highlight the need for pre-service teachers’ knowledge of cyberethics to be prioritised during Initial Teacher Education (ITE), especially at such a time when their professional identity is being shaped. A clear tension was noted between the perceived knowledge or competence and the declared practices of some pre-service teachers concerning the cyberethics items featured in the study. In light of our findings, we recommend that all ITE programmes include digital competence and cyberethics components in their curricula. This would enable pre-service teachers to develop an emerging professional and digital identity to face the challenges of becoming teachers in the 21st century.</p> Josephine Milton, Tonje Hilde Giæver, Louise Mifsud, Héctor Hernández Gassó Copyright (c) 2021 Josephine Milton, Tonje Hilde Giæver, Louise Mifsud, Héctor Hernández Gassó Tue, 30 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Pre-service Teachers' Digital Experiences through Digital Pedagogical Practices in Norway <p>Digital skills are one of the key competences outlined in The European Reference Framework of Key Competences for Lifelong Learning prescribed by the EU in 2006. Integration of digital tools and resources into the classroom results in more platforms for teaching and learning activities. Teacher training programmes prepare pre-service teachers with pedagogical competencies and skills necessary for their future practices. This paper shows that pre-service teachers could overcome the pedagogical challenges during COVID-19 teaching by updating their present and future classroom teaching strategies around digital literacy. To explore further how these new teaching circumstances are understood and reflected on by pre-service teachers, the researchers collected written reflections of 52 pre-service teachers in Norway using an open-ended survey about their digital integration experiences in their practicum. This paper offers analyses of the reflections inductively to reveal the teachers’ process of development of their classroom teaching strategies as influenced by new digitalisation-related experiences. The findings show low levels of digital integration according to the SAMR model but moderate to high levels of satisfaction among pre-service teachers of digital practices. In the light of these findings, this study offers pedagogical technological implications for teachers and teacher educators who work with teacher education curricula.</p> Pattamawan Jimarkon, Phalangchok Wanphet, Kenan Dikilitas Copyright (c) 2021 Pattamawan Jimarkon, Phalangchok Wanphet, Kenan Dikilitas Tue, 30 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0100 From digital competence to Professional Digital Competence <p>The authors of this article have collaborated as part of a steering group for Norwegian state-funded research and development project designed to enhance the professional digital competence (PDC) of both teacher educators, practising, and student teachers. In this article, we give voice to students’ experiences of their PDC development during teacher education (TE). We investigate their ideas on how TE might be developed to prepare them better for professional careers in a digital context. The participants are studying at a Norwegian university where, from 2018 to 2021, PDC has become a major area of focus as part of the aforementioned project. The data consist of four group interviews with 17 students from different campuses. We find that student teachers employ a broad range of digital technologies during TE. They experience a diversity of digital didactical practices and engage in thematic discussions concerning digitalization. They also utilise many technologies and apply the digital knowledge they have acquired in their personal lives. While some of them request more technical support during TE, most want to see TE engaging them in more critical discussions about the educational opportunities and challenges that digitalization offers. We discuss some of the dilemmas that TE must address to respond to these findings. In particular, we elaborate on how students’ digital experiences can be used as a resource when preparing for their professional roles as teachers.</p> Aslaug Grov Almås, Agnete Andersen Bueie, Toril Aagaard Copyright (c) 2021 Aslaug Grov Almås, Agnete Andersen Bueie, Toril Aagaard Tue, 30 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Digital Competence in Teacher Education Curricula <p>This qualitative study aims to contribute to the discourse on teacher educators’ knowledge by examining the impact of digitalisation. To explore how digital competence is addressed in local curricula and what is expected of teacher educators (TEDs) in terms of preparing student teachers for epistemic changes, I thematically analysed the programme descriptions, course descriptions, and plans for school practicum from six Norwegian teacher education institutions. The findings show that TEDs are expected to focus on the (pedagogical) use of digital tools. However, they are also supposed to teach student teachers how to foster pupils’ digital skills and digital responsibility while addressing digitalisation’s influences on society and culture, subjects’ contents, and educational practices. The findings imply that TEDs need an understanding of digitalisation’s implications for epistemic practices to foster student teachers’ digital competence and transformative digital agency.</p> Ilka Nagel Copyright (c) 2021 Ilka Nagel Tue, 30 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Digital Downsides in Teacher Education <p>This paper is particularly relevant in the context of a global pandemic when the majority of teaching is conducted online or in a hybrid environment that requires long hours in front of a screen. Online teaching is becoming increasingly important throughout education, and our findings draw attention to some of the challenges and possible pitfalls of the extensive use of digital technologies and, consequently, implications for teacher education. In the paper, we explore student teachers’ perceptions of digital downsides, their teaching tools self-efficacy, their resilience to digital distractions, and physical discomfort from the use of digital technology. We aim to identify these four concepts and examine whether and how they interconnect. A cross-sectional design was used to analyse data from 561 first-year student teachers enrolled in two teacher education programmes in two universities in Norway in 2019. The findings indicate that resilience to digital distractions decreases and a higher level of reported physical discomfort from digital technology increases student teachers’ perceived downsides of digital technologies. Overall, 38% of the variation in perceived digital downsides within the two teacher education programmes can be explained by these two concepts, as well as to the study programme the student teachers attended.</p> Ove Edvard Hatlevik, Greta Björk Gudmundsdottir, Anubha Rohatgi Copyright (c) 2021 Ove Edvard Hatlevik, Greta Björk Gudmundsdottir, Anubha Rohatgi Tue, 30 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Introducing the PEAT model to frame professional digital competence in teacher education <p>This paper puts forward a case for using the PEAT model in teacher education, a framework designed to capture the different dimensions of teachers’ professional digital competence (PDC). The model arose from an Erasmus+ funded project exploring digital competence in teacher education. While existing frameworks and conceptualisations of teachers’ digital competence exist, this paper argues that the PEAT model has unique affordances and characteristics. This paper outlines the importance of digital competence before exploring how it is currently conceptualised in teacher education. Following this, some of the current frameworks encapsulating the elements of teachers’ professional digital competence are briefly presented. Finally, the paper presents the PEAT framework and discusses its unique affordances.</p> Adrian McDonagh, Patrick Camilleri, Bard Engen, Oliver McGarr Copyright (c) 2021 Adrian McDonagh, Patrick Camilleri, Bard Engen, Oliver McGarr Tue, 30 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Young migrant students’ motivators and drive for obtaining education <p>This article investigates how students from migrant backgrounds describe their motivators and drive for obtaining an education. It is based on a qualitative study of 17 young people aged 16-24. All are students in combination classes at a large upper-secondary school in Eastern Norway and are recent arrivals in Norway with little prior education. Half aspire to higher education, while the others are applying for vocational training. In this article, we link these educational ambitions to four forms of motivation. The<strong> <em>immigrant motivator</em></strong> relates to high academic expectations among parents and other family members. In addition to the immigrant motivator, there is what we refer to as the <strong><em>middle-class motivator, </em></strong>where parents of low socio-economic status exert influence in a way that can be understood as a kind of middle-class behaviour. The <strong><em>world-citizen motivator</em></strong> encompasses the students’ desires to contribute by giving something back to their home countries, the host country, and the global community. The <strong><em>opportunity motivator </em></strong>is linked to the efforts of the school community to provide an inclusive and facilitative environment for this group of students. Schools that offer adapted and differentiated teaching, customized to the needs of individual students, as with combination classes, seem to function as important protective factors.</p> Inger Kjersti Lindvig, Trine Svenni Copyright (c) 2021 Inger Kjersti Lindvig, Trine Svenni Thu, 10 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0200