2021-04-16T13:36:10+02:00 Geir Haugsbakk Open Journal Systems <p>"" is an international journal, which publishes refereed articles dealing with research into theoretical or practical aspects related to the learning of adolescents, adults and elderly, in formal or informal educational settings. The use of information and communication technologies in general in these settings is a vital field of interest for the journal.</p> The Pandemic and Higher Education 2021-04-15T14:58:29+02:00 Yngve Troye Nordkvelle <p>None of the papers presented here reflects on the Pandemic situation. In due time, journals will be filled with research papers on the effects and workings of the Pandemic for academics, students and organizations in higher education. One general theme will be if the changed contexts for teaching and learning we have seen in the time span from February/March 2020 until the present situation will throw significant light into how the future will be. In a report presented by the US organization EDUCAUSE, well before the pandemic, the following trends were foreshadowed:</p> <p>In the social domain, wellbeing and mental health, demographic changes and equity and fairness will be high on the agenda. In the technological domain, AI, new digital learning environment, and leaning analytics and privacy questions will cause concern. In the economic domain, cost, adjustment to the labour market and climate change will take foreground. In the political domain, decreasing funding, estimation of value of higher education and political polarization will need attention. Finally, the dynamics of higher education itself will influence our path to the future: changes in student population, alternative pathways to education and online education.</p> <p>None of these forecasts anticipated the demands of a rapidly evolving pandemic globally. The latter points of the list provided by EDUCAUSE have been the focus of this journal over the last 17 years. We have seen trends come and pass, and watched trends oscillate with the shifts of fashion. In our experience we see that global actors take over the market: Blackboard, Moodle and Canvas. ZOOM and Webex are winning similar positions and a host of add-ons and potentially brilliant contenders try to gain the same advantages. One example comes to mind: one software – no name mentioned – cost a Norwegian institution nkr 30&nbsp;000 for a license for a studentbody of 40&nbsp;000 – before the pandemic. After the pandemic, the price for a smaller institution with a studentbody of 15&nbsp;000, has risen to nkr. 350&nbsp;000. Another example: the realization of strict GDPR regulations in Europe hampers the use of software in significant ways. The main VLE/LMS-configurations are affected by the different GDPR-arrangements in US vs. other continent and states. The global market for educational software are seriously affected by the globalization and the escalating disharmonies in international collaboration. It does not help that some providers act like profiteers at this time and age.</p> <p>In this edition of our seventeenth volume we offer five articles. In the first, Marcia Håkansson Lindqvist of Mid Sweden University, contributes with an analysis of one Swedish one-to-one laptop initiative. Her take is on how parents conceive of this phenomenon. She describes how the initiative was a mixed blessing, and one sees easily its applicability to the present condition for most student. In the second paper, Rob Miles, of the United Arab Emirates University, has written the paper: “Identifying the contradictions in the technology enhanced language classroom”. It contains an account of a theoretically sophisticated – and highly critical research project in a region not often reported from in Northern academic journals. The paper questions the positive impact of a 1:1 laptop initiative in a context quite different from the Swedish example. Tor Jørgen Schjelde and Ingrid Nilsen Lie of Tromsø University, the Arctic University, present the third paper: “The impact of emotions on learning and motivation in producing and presenting digital stories.” Digital stories have been a strong interest for this journal over the years, and their paper opens new avenues of research into the role of emotional engagement in the production – and reception of digital stories. Three authors, Reidun Lied, Hanne Maria Bingen of VID specialized University and Simen A. Steindal of Lovisenberg Diaconal University College present the paper: “Collaborative Online Learning Using a Blended Learning Design for a Physiology Course in Nursing Education”. It describes an implementation of Salmon’s model for online collaborative learning in a blended learning context for part-time nursing students. Salmon’s model is widely used and is here contesting its applicability for this group of students. Last, Brita Bjørkelo of Norwegian Police University College/University of Bergen, Aslaug Grov Almås of Western Norway University of Applied Sciences and Ingrid Helleve of the University of Bergen present their joint paper: “Perceived adequate education in ethics:A way to tap into ethical Social Networking Sites awareness?”. It provides a very good argument for applied training in ethical issues in teacher training also will prepare them for counteracting illegitimate student use of Social Network Sites.</p> 2021-04-16T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Yngve Troye Nordkvelle The use of digital technologies in a 1:1 laptop initiative 2020-10-06T14:39:58+02:00 Marcia Håkansson Lindqvist <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">The use of digital technologies is now a natural part of schoolwork in many schools. The use of digital technologies and the conditions for technology-enhanced learning and school development were studied in two schools, an upper-secondary school and a compulsory school, over a period of 3 years, exploring the student, teacher, school leader, and school perspectives. In this small study, two surveys (N = 26; N = 17) were used to provide further insights into the compulsory school, by exploring the parent perspective of a 1:1 laptop initiative. Laptop use in the classroom was seen as a potential pedagogical tool for structure and support in learning activities, student responsibility for schoolwork, and issues of digital equity. Challenges included increased laptop use, difficulties regarding insight into and monitoring of schoolwork and homework, students’ focus on schoolwork in the classroom environment, and physical aspects. The results show that the parent perspective provides important insights for teachers, school leaders, and school organizers that may help support students’ learning through the use of digital technologies in the classroom. </span></p> 2021-04-16T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Marcia Håkansson Lindqvist Identifying the contradictions in the technology enhanced language classroom 2020-10-13T18:42:47+02:00 Rob Miles <p>This study takes place in the context of a federal laptop-mediated English language pre-university course in the United Arab Emirates. Despite predictions and claims from policy makers and practitioners that 1:1 classroom devices would revolutionise teaching and learning, student results remain static and student attrition remains high. Through the lens of activity theory this paper identifies ten contradictions, and their discursive manifestations, potentially causing failure and attrition. This paper contributes to the fields of technology enhanced learning, 1:1 device initiatives, English language teaching, computer assisted and mobile assisted language learning and activity theory by highlighting several problematic experiences in teachers’ practices and mapping these within the activity system context. The paper also questions the positive impact of a 1:1 laptop initiative in this particular context, with implications for future research.</p> 2021-04-16T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Rob Miles The impact of emotions on learning and motivation in producing and presenting digital stories 2020-10-04T13:18:34+02:00 Tor Schjelde Ingrid Nielsen Lie <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">Researchers of digital storytelling emphasize emotions as an important aspect of learning in the production and presentation of digital stories. The aim of this study is to explore the positive and negative emotions involved in the process of making digital stories and presenting them. As well as students’ perceptions of how this affects their motivation and learning. One hundred and thirty-two students responded to an adapted version of the Achievement Emotions Questionnaire, which collects data on the emotions present in a learning context. In addition, we interviewed ten students to gather in depth data about their feelings, motivation and learning. We found that both positive and negative emotions were involved when the students created and presented their digital stories. The students felt that their emotions influenced their motivation and learning. Drawing on theories of learning and motivation, we argue that negative activating emotions can aid learning, and positive deactive emotions can have a negative impact on learning. Emotions can aid learning in higher education and digital storytelling is an important contribution in this regard. </span></p> 2021-04-16T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Tor Schjelde, Ingrid Nielsen Lie Collaborative Online Learning Using a Blended Learning Design for a Physiology Course in Nursing Education 2020-11-10T11:47:34+01:00 Reidun Lid Simen Alexander Steindal Hanne Maria Bingen <p><strong>Background:</strong> This paper is based on implementation of Salmon’s model for online collaborative learning in a blended learning context for part-time nursing students at a Norwegian university.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> The aim of this study was to explore and describe students’ experiences and to assess the relevance of Salmon’s model applied in a blended learning course in physiology.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The study used a qualitative descriptive design. Data were collected from students enrolled in a physiology course in 2011 and 2012. Qualitative data came from survey and focus group interviews. </p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> Three themes emerged from this study: participation in both steps of the two-step design is important but challenging; online socialisation and a sense of group community support student participation and learning in group e-tivities; and the students’ perception of responsibility when collaborating online.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The teacher’s facilitation of online socialisation, participation, collaboration, feedback and intervention promoted a sense of community and was crucial for the students’ learning of physiology. However, a lack of confidence concerning professional physiology knowledge led to a greater dependency on the teacher than Salmon’s model suggests. The model may have limited potential in physiology, which requires causal reasoning. We suggest combining Salmon’s asynchronous model with synchronous activities.</p> <p> </p> 2021-04-16T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Reidun Lid, Simen Alexander Steindal, Hanne Maria Bingen Perceived adequate education in ethics: A way to tap into ethical Social Networking Sites awareness? 2020-11-02T12:36:54+01:00 Brita Bjørkelo Aslaug Grov Almås Ingrid Helleve <p>Teachers are role models when it comes to ethics both on- and offline. Teacher education on- and offline situations and issues that may be of ethical concernThis study first investigates perceived adequacy of ethics education. Second, it investigates how perceived usefulness of ethics education relates to how aware preservice teachers’ report to be regarding own and others’ negative SNS experiences. The rPreservice teachers who felt that ethics education had prepared them well for ethical challenges as professional teachers, ecognise and detect own experiences can psituations and issues as professional teachers</p> 2021-04-16T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Aslaug Grov Almås, Brita Bjørkelo, Ingrid Helleve