Keywords:work, addictions and mental disorders, flexibility, Integration and normalization, User participation and resource orientation
For many years the education and training of people with addictions and mental-health problems have been a key strategy to assist people to find ordinary jobs. This strategy is largely concerned with adapting people to the requirements of the workplace. An alternative strategy can also be envisaged, where the workplace adapts to the possibilities and resources of the people (Hansen, 2009). In this article, we raise the following question: how is it possible to adapt workplaces for people with addiction and mental-health problems? Here we highlight the experiences of a workplace that focuses on adapting to employees’ capabilities and resources. The data collection consists both of 12 interviews with managers and workers and of participant observation of the workplace. Our answer to our question is that this is possible because the workplace is flexible in the way that they adapt their demands to the workers’ resources.
Bakker A. B. & Demerouti E. (2007). The Job Demands-Resources model: state of the art. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 22(3), 309-328.
Bekkengen L (2002). Man får välja - Om föräldraskap och föräldraledighet i arbetsliv och familjeliv [You have to choose - Parenting and parental leave in work and family]. Malmø: Liber forlag.
Biernacki, P. (1986). Pathways from heroin addiction: Recovery without treatment. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Briand, C., Durand, M.-J., St-Arnaud, L., & Corbière, M. (2007). Work and mental health: learning from return-to-work rehabilitation programs designed for workers with musculoskeletal disorders. International journal of law and psychiatry, 30(4), 444-457.
Crowther, R. E., Marshall, M., Bond, G. R., & Huxley, P. (2001). Helping people with severe mental illness to obtain work: systematic review. British Medical Journal, 322(7280), 204-208.
Danermark, B., Ekström M., Jacobsen, L. & Karlsson, J. C. (2003). Att förklara samhället [Explaining society], Lund: Studentlitteratur.
Dekkers-Sánchez, P. M., Hoving, J. L., Sluiter, J. K., & Frings-Dresen, M. H. (2008). Factors associated with long-term sick leave in sick-listed employees: a systematic review. Occupational and environmental medicine, 65(3), 153-157.
Demerouti, E., Bakker, A. B., Nachreiner, F., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2001a). The job demands-resources model of burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(3), 499-512.
Elstad, J. I., & Vabø, M. (2008). Job stress, sickness absence and sickness presenteeism in Nordic elderly care. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 36(5), 467-474.
Evans, J., & Repper, J. (2000). Employment, social inclusion and mental health. Journal of psychiatric and mental health nursing, 7(1), 15-24.
Granerud, A., & Severinsson, E. (2006). The struggle for social integration in the community–the experiences of people with mental health problems. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 13(3), 288-293.
Graybeal, C. (2001). Strengths-based social work assessment: Transforming the dominant paradigm. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Social Services, 82(3), 233-242.
Hammer, T. & Øverbye, E. (Eds.) (2006). Inkluderende arbeidsliv? Erfaringer og strategier [Inclusive work? Experiences and strategies]. Oslo: Gyldendal Akademisk.
Hansen, G. V. & Dybvik, K. A. (2009). Betydningen av arbeid for funksjonshemmedes tilfredshet med deres dagligliv i forhold til andre livskvalitetsområder [The importance of work for everyday life-satisfaction for disabled people, compared with other aspects of quality of life]. The SOR Report 2, 8-26
Hansen, G. V. (2009). Et fleksibelt blikk på avtalen om inkluderende arbeidsliv [A flexible view of the agreement on inclusive work]. In J. C. Karlsson & T. Claussen, (Eds.) Den sköra balansen: arbetslivet och flexibilitetens tvetydigheter [The delicate balance: working life and the ambiguities of flexibility] (pp. 133-145). Växjö: Växjö University
Hansen, G. V. (2007). Samarbeid uten fellesskap – om individuelle planer i kommunalt psykisk helsearbeid [Cooperation without a community - individual plans in local government mental health care]. Karlstad University Studies 2007:15.
Jacobsen, D. I. (2005). Hvordan gjennomføre undersøkelser? Innføring i samfunnsvitenskapelig metode [How to conduct surveys? An introduction to social science methodology]. Oslo, Høyskoleforlaget.
Karasek, R. & Theorell, T. (1990). Healthy work: stress, productivity, and the reconstruction of working life. New York: Basic Books.
Karasek Jr, R. A. (1979). Job demands, job decision latitude, and mental strain: Implications for job redesign. Administrative science quarterly, 24(2), 285-308.
Karlsson, J. C. (2009). Den dubbeltydiga flexibiliteten [Ambiguous flexibility]. In J. C. Karlsson & T. Claussen (Eds.): Den sköra balansen: arbetslivet och flexibilitetens tvetydigheter [The delicate balance: working life and the ambiguities of flexibility] (pp. 43-56). Växjö: Växjö University.
Kristof, A. L. (1996). Person‐organization fit: An integrative review of its conceptualizations, measurement, and implications. Personnel psychology, 49(1), 1-49.
Kvale, S. (2001). Det kvalitative forskningsintervju [The qualitative research interview]. Oslo: Gyldendal Akademisk.
Lemire, S. T., Nielsen, S. B., & Dybdal, L. (2012). Making contribution analysis work: A practical framework for handling influencing factors and alternative explanations. Evaluation, 18(3), 294-309. doi: 10.1177/1356389012450654
McIntosh, J. Bloor, M. & McKegany N. (2008). Drug treatment and the achievement of paid employment. Addiction Research and Theory, 16(1), 37-45. doi: 10.1080/16066350701699197
Morley, M. J. (2007). Person-organization fit. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 22(2), 109-117.
Mykletun A & Knudsen A K. (2009). Tapte arbeidsår ved uførepensjonering for psykiske lidelser. En analyse basert på FD-trygd [Lost working years due to disability retirement. An analysis based on the FD-trygd database]. Oslo, Institute for Public Health.
National Strategic Plan for Work and Mental Health, 2007-2012. Oslo: Ministry of Labour and Ministry of Health and Care services.
OECD (2010). Sickness, Disability and Work, Breaking the Barriers, a synthesis of findings across OECD countries. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
Oliver, M. (1996). Defining impairment and disability: issues at stake. In C. Barnes & G. Mercer (Eds.) Exploring the divide: Illness and disability (pp. 39-54). Leeds, UK: The Disability Press.
Ose, S. O., Kaspersen, S. L., Jensberg, H., Kalseth, B. & Lilleeng, S. (2009). Psykisk helse og arbeidsliv - behov for nye tilnærminger [Mental health and employment - the need for new approaches]. In Søkelys på arbeidslivet [Spotlight on working life] 1/2009, 26, 75-92.
Plan for Work and Mental Health 2013-2016. Oslo: Ministry of Labour and Ministry of Health Care services.
Putnam, R. D. (1995). Tuning in, tuning out: The strange disappearance of social capital in America. PS: Political science & politics, 28(04), 664-683.
Reneflot, A., & Evensen, M. (2011). Arbeidsledighet og psykisk helse blant unge i Norden: en kunnskapsoversikt [Unemployment and mental health among young people in the Nordic countries: an overview of knowledge] Gothenburg: Nordic School of Public Health (NHV).
Saleebey, D. (1996). The strengths perspective in social work practice: Extensions and cautions. Social work, 41(3), 296-305.
Schafft, A. (2008). Psykiske lidelser og arbeidsintegrering i Skandinavia: En kunnskapsstatus [Mental disorders and work integration in Scandinavia. The status of knowledge]. Oslo: The Work Research Institute, Report, 4.
Sekiguchi, T. (2004). Person-organization fit and person-job fit in employee selection: A review of the literature. Osaka Keidai Ronshu, 54(6), 179-196.
Skorstad E (2009). Den tvetydige fleksibiliteten [Ambiguous flexibility]. In J. C. Karlsson & T. Claussen (Eds.) (2009): Den sköra balansen: arbetslivet och flexibilitetens tvetydigheter [The delicate balance: working life and the ambiguities of flexibility] pp. 12-42. Växjö: Växjö University.
Solheim, L. J. (2007). Savis – ein modell for sosial inklusjon [Savis: a model for social inclusion]. In O. P. Askheim & B. Starrin (Eds.) Empowerment i teori og praksis [Empowerment in theory and practice] (pp. 97 – 111). Oslo: Gyldendal Akademisk.
Sundell, T. (2013). Utvikling i sykefraværet 4. kvartal 2012 [Trends in sickness absence, 4th quarter 2012]. Oslo: Arbeids og Velferdsdirektoratet, seksjon for statistikk (Statistics Department, Directorate of Labour and Welfare).
Thorsen, K. & Clausen, S. (2008). Funksjonshemning, ensomhet og depresjon: Hva betyr ensomhet for om personer med funksjonshemning opplever depresjon? [Disability, loneliness and depression. What is the significance of loneliness in disabled people’s experiences of depression?] Tidsskrift for Norsk Psykologforening, 45(1) 19-27.
Van Dongen, C. J. (1996). Quality of life and self-esteem in working and nonworking persons with mental illness. Community Mental Health Journal, 32(6), 535-548.
Wilton, R. D. (2004). From flexibility to accommodation? Disabled people and the reinvention of paid work. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 29(4), 420-432.
How to Cite
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).