Nordic Journal of Social Research <p>The Nordic Journal of Social Research (NJSR) is a multidisciplinary, open access, peer-reviewed journal that publishes high quality papers from social, cultural, political and economic research in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. It presents new empirical data, and endeavours to advance theoretical development and/or enhance discussion of policy implications. More specifically, the journal publishes articles that examine social issues in one of the Nordic countries, compare such issues among Nordic countries, or offer comparisons of the Nordic countries with other parts of the world. The overarching objective is to enhance our understanding of the social processes and values that govern the welfare state and the course of everyday life. This includes tensions in securing viability of welfare structures and services, social integration, diversity and mobility, identity politics, policy development and innovation, life-span opportunities and security, and inequality, among other topics. A core aim is to facilitate a window for engaging the Nordic societies and Nordic researchers with the larger global world and international scholarship.</p> Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences (INN University) en-US Nordic Journal of Social Research 1892-2783 <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p><ol><li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li><li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li><li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li></ol><p> </p> Does context matter? Voluntary work in long-term care <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Increased voluntary work in long-term care (LTC) is encouraged in white papers in Norway as well as in many other western states. This is due to the growth in the number of service recipients and a subsequent economic burden for the state. Voluntary work in nursing homes and home care services take place in different spatial contexts, but little attention has been paid to how the different contexts may potentially influence the possibilities for voluntary work. The aim of this study is to obtain new knowledge of the significance of context in recruitment of volunteers in LTC.</p> <p><strong>Method</strong>: A cross-sectional study was conducted among leaders in nursing homes and home services in 50 municipalities across all regions of Norway. Descriptive analysis was used.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: According to the leaders, home care services had less voluntary work than nursing homes. Respondents from home care scored “poor flow of information” and “low interest in the municipality” as major hinderances, more so than respondents from nursing homes did.</p> <p><strong>Discussion</strong>: Nursing homes typically have many residents under one roof following a similar schedule. Thus, volunteer-run activities are held more easily at set times and incorporated into the daily life of the institutions. On the other hand, home dwellers in home care stay in a more individualised setting with more autonomy and can opt out of activities that nursing home residents would normally join. Skill acquisition, networking and socializing are common motivations for volunteering, and a nursing home setting may be an easier context to obtain this. The governmental endeavour for increased voluntary work in LTC can be seen as an effort to meet expected rises in public expenditure. However, the realism can be debated due to substantial challenges on the future potential of volunteerism in LTC, especially in the home care context.</p> Laila Tingvold Oddvar Førland Copyright (c) 2021 Laila Tingvold, Oddvar Førland 2021-08-11 2021-08-11 12 1 155 180 10.7577/njsr.3698 The Construction of ‘socially marginalised Greenlanders’ as a target group in Danish welfare policy and practice <p>This paper examines the emergence of ‘socially marginalized Greenlanders’ as a distinct target category in Danish welfare policy and practice. It builds on analysis of policies targeting Greenlandic minorities in Denmark and interviews with welfare professionals in charge of implementing these. The paper shows how Greenlandic minorities are represented as characterized by markers of difference viewed to set them apart from other socially marginalized citizens. These relate to 1) structural differences that impact on the ability to receive and benefit from welfare services, 2) to the perceived cultural origins of the problems that socially marginalised Greenlanders face, and, finally, 3) to the excessive social problems associated in policies and by professionals with an upbringing in Greenland. The paper shows how policies and welfare professionals both reject and continuously resort to the notion of the target group as distinct from other socially marginalized citizens. In continuation of this, the analysis further shows how ambivalences and contradictions are not so much found between the levels of policy and practice, as other studies of policy implementation processes have demonstrated, as they are inherent within all policy and considerations about how to understand the target group they articulate.</p> Maj Nygaard-Christensen Bagga Bjerge Copyright (c) 2021 Maj Nygaard-Christensen, Bagga Bjerge 2021-05-27 2021-05-27 12 1 132 154 10.7577/njsr.3817 Making the best of it: Adolescents' perceptions of how their home and neighborhood spheres shape their lives <p>Adolescents’ homes are fundamental components of their living conditions and essential for their everyday life, health, well-being and development. Previous research has focused on how housing affects adolescents through investigating certain aspects of adolescent health and future outcomes. In this qualitative study, we explored low-income family adolescents’ subjective experiences of their homes and in what ways their experiences of housing influenced their everyday lives. Seven participants aged between 12 and 20 years were recruited through a housing project. The participants were interviewed using individual in-depth interviews. The data were analysed using a thematic analysis and organised into four themes: 1) housing features affecting social life and privacy, 2) moving around, 3) the importance of neighbourhood and 4) worries and dreams. The findings show how the housing standards affected adolescents’ social life and privacy. House moves could provide new opportunities but also lead to a lack of continuity in relationships. The neighbourhood was highlighted as a public sphere, providing access to places and friends. Adolescents’ worries and dreams concerning housing conditions are also presented. The results show how housing is central in shaping adolescents’ social relationships, the importance of access to neighbourhood spheres and how adolescents adapt to their situation. The findings further reveal the important underlying processes to facilitate a greater understanding of the role of housing in low-income family adolescents’ lives.</p> Vibeke Krane Ellen Andvig Copyright (c) 2021 Vibeke Krane, Ellen Andvig 2021-04-19 2021-04-19 12 1 111 131 10.7577/njsr.3918 Exploring social innovation (SI) within the research contexts of higher education, healthcare, and welfare services – a scoping review <p>Introduction: Nordic countries face societal challenges for which social innovation may represent solutions. The aim of this scoping review is to explore the concept of social innovation within the research contexts of higher education, ealthcare, and welfare services.</p> <p>Method: A scoping review methodology was used, including a literature search and the identification of eligible studies published between 2007 and 2019, in addition to data extraction and synthesis. Forty-three studies were included in this review.</p> <p>Results: Across the research contexts, social innovation is conceptualized as a set of novel, creative, human-centred, and value-driven processes aiming to bring about change. Qualitative research methods dominate social innovation research. In welfare services, social innovation concerns the relationship between policy and praxis, new forms of leadership and management, and the promotion of societal inclusion and cohesion. Social innovation in healthcare comprises the use of technology to digitalize service, enhance patients’ well-being, and improve service quality. In higher education, social innovation research focuses on educational reforms involving non-profit stakeholders.</p> <p>Discussion: Social innovation is a multifaceted concept related to change at the organizational or societal level, often with various stakeholders working together to create improvements. The lack of a common definition and framework of social innovation makes this concept difficult to measure or quantify, reflecting the dominance of qualitative research methods in the selected research contexts. Across these research contexts, social innovation can be defined and used for various research purposes, which are often political and value-based, with the latter connected to the common good and people’s well-being. Moreover, few social innovation studies have been performed in Nordic countries.</p> Anne Marie Lunde Husebø Marianne Storm Atle Ødegård Charlotte Wegener Marie Aakjær Anne Lyngby Pedersen Maja Boelsmand Østergaard Elisabeth Willumsen Copyright (c) 2021 Anne Marie Lunde Husebø, Marianne Storm, Atle Ødegård, Charlotte Wegener, Marie Aakjær, Anne Lyngby Pedersen, Maja Boelsmand Østergaard, Elisabeth Willumsen 2021-04-19 2021-04-19 12 1 72 110 10.7577/njsr.3455 Understanding the relationship between subjective health complaints and satisfaction with life for people in prevocational training in Norway <p>Background and aim: In Norway, a large part of the population is dependent on disability benefits. The main reasons for this are related to long-term musculoskeletal pain and psychological complaints. Prevocational rehabilitation, aimed at increasing participation in working life, targets people in need of a sheltered vocational environment. This group has been found to report a very high level of health complaints. Therefore, a better understanding of the psychological mechanisms affecting satisfaction with life for people who experience subjective health complaints could be important for tailoring more optimal vocational rehabilitation initiatives for these individuals. This study aimed to investigate the possible mediator role of basic psychological need satisfaction, described in self-determination theory, in the relationship between subjective health complaints and satisfaction with life.</p> <p> </p> <p>Methods: A total of 201 adult participants attending prevocational training on care farms in Norway answered a questionnaire, including demographic questions and standardised instruments on subjective health complaints, basic psychological need satisfaction and satisfaction with life. Analyses were conducted using a structural equation model.</p> <p> </p> <p>Results: Most of the participants had been out of work for more than one year, had a high prevalence of subjective health complaints and a low level of satisfaction with life. The structural equation model showed that basic psychological need satisfaction mediated the negative association between psychological health complaints and satisfaction with life.</p> <p><br />Conclusion: The results indicate that even though health complaints remain, prevocational programs can counteract some of the negative associations between subjective health complaints and satisfaction with life by creating contexts that support basic psychological needs that are important for well-being and functioning. Providing clients with understanding, guidance, positive feedback, meaningful tasks and a close, supportive social community, has been found to facilitate satisfaction of basic psychological needs in prevocational training on care farms</p> Lina Harvold Ellingsen-Dalskau Bente Berget Gunnar Tellnes Camilla Ihlebæk Copyright (c) 2021 Lina Harvold Ellingsen-Dalskau, Bente Berget, Gunnar Tellnes, Camilla Ihlebæk 2021-01-31 2021-01-31 12 1 46 72 10.7577/njsr.3500 Standardised functional assessment in long-term care for older people: perspective of Finnish care workers <p>Objective measures and documentation are increasingly used in the care for older people to promote efficiency and productivity. A standardised assessment of functional capacity is one such measure. In this study, we examined the meanings given to standardised functional assessment by care workers who provide long-term care for older people. Gathered from eight Finnish long-term care facilities, the data consisted of one-on-one interviews with practical and registered nurses (n = 24). In the data analysis, we employed the discursive approach. We identified three discourses in the care workers’ talks that differed in the meaning given to standardised functional assessment in the process of care: part of the bureaucracy, a missed opportunity and a threat to person-centred care. Care workers described these assessments as constituting a routine part of their job but expressed uncertainty about their role and the practical<br />benefits in actual care work. They even called into question these assessments’ relevance to quality care delivery. To be a meaningful part of care practice, it is essential that there be a shared understanding of the rationale behind functional assessments in the care organisation and that care workers themselves can see the outcomes of these assessments in their daily work.</p> Vilhelmiina Lehto-Niskala Outi Jolanki Jaakko Valvanne Marja Jylhä Copyright (c) 2021 Vilhelmiina Lehto-Niskala, Outi Jolanki, Jaakko Valvanne, Marja Jylhä 2021-01-31 2021-01-31 12 1 27 47 10.7577/njsr.3734 Circle of Security - Parenting: A Systematic review on Effectiveness of use of the parent training program within Multi-problem Families <p>Introduction: Circle of Security-parenting (COS-p) is a simplified, relationship-based programme with the intention of developing parents’ observation and inferential skills related to understanding their child’s needs, increasing sensitivity to their child, aiding in emotional regulation, as well as decreasing any of their negative attributions to their child. COS-p is a widely used parenting programme that is gaining global popularity, as it is currently being delivered across several continents. Despite being one of the most frequently used interventions in Norwegian child protective services (CPS), no research has been conducted on this programme’s effectiveness when used in the CPS context. This study therefore aims to establish a systematic overview of the programme’s effectiveness for families within the CPS system, regarding both caregivers and benefits for the children.</p> <p>Method: The database searches were originally conducted in June 2018 and updated in April 2020, encompassing 13 international bibliographical databases. The search for grey literature was conducted, and the generated articles these were then manually searched. A non-statistical narrative approach was used to analyse the studies due to the heterogeneity of the outcome measures. Research studies on the effectiveness of COS-p intervention, where the participants reported a minimum of two specifically defined risk factors, were included for further analysis.</p> <p>Results: Seven studies met the inclusion criteria. The studies included in the review focus on a diversity of separate and isolated factors concerning caregivers but not the effect of the accumulation of risk factors and how this may or may not influence the potential effectiveness of COS-p. The findings’ strengths include some improvements in reducing parental stress, increasing self-efficacy and parenting skills, and promoting an understanding of child behaviour. There is no conclusive evidence that COS-p assists in increasing the security of the parent-child attachment relationship.</p> <p>Discussion: Given the limited number of studies, further research is needed to examine if COS-p improves child behaviour, if its effects can be sustained over time and if it is more effective for particular populations.</p> Tina Gerdts-Andresen Copyright (c) 2021 Tina Gerdts-Andresen 2021-01-31 2021-01-31 12 1 1 26 10.7577/njsr.3482