Silenced Narratives on Schooling and Future: The Educational Situation for Roma Children in Norway

Authors

  • Kari Hagatun University of Bergen

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.7577/njcie.3578

Keywords:

Roma pupils, formal education, portraiture, intersectionality, decolonial perspectives

Abstract

This article explores how Roma pupils in Norway experience school. Using portraiture methodology, I narrate the experiences of Leah, Hannah and Maria, focusing on their situation before and after the transition from elementary to lower secondary school. The article demonstrates how children negotiate and are negotiated by, intersecting racializing and gendering structures, using decolonial perspectives. One key finding is the complexity in how the schools’ knowledge discourses, and subsequent practices and attitudes, play out in the girls’ agency. I emphasize the need to produce counter-narratives by identifying agency, rather than depicting Roma in positions as either exotic or marginalized. Overall, the article addresses how coloniality still produces and upholds structures of inequality that render groups like Roma as non-existent in education. Turning the lens towards the inadequacy of an educational system that struggles to recognize the need for radical structural change, the article challenges a strong metanarrative within research and public debate that depicts “the different Roma culture” as the main explanation to low educational attainment among Roma pupils. I argue that the agency of Roma in Norway, who historically have resisted formal education experienced as forced assimilation, represents a unique opportunity to critically examine and rethink how inclusion is understood and operationalized in schools. Thus, knowledge about how school is experienced by Roma pupils today constitutes a vital contribution to the needed effort to decolonialize the educational system.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Ahearn, L. M. (2001). Language and Agency. Annual Review Anthropology, 30(1), 9-37.

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: the exercise of control. Freeman.

Brustad, J. A., Lien, L., & Rosvoll, M. (2017). Ekskludering. Norsk politikk overfor rom 1915 - 1956. In N. Brandal, C. A. Døving, & I. Thorson Plesner (Eds.), Nasjonale minoriteter og urfolk i norsk politikk frå 1900 til 2016 (pp. 79-92). Cappelen Damm Akademisk.

Chapman, T. K. (2016). Expressions of “Voice” in Portraiture. Qualitative Inquiry, 11(1), 27-51. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077800404270840

Connell, R. (2014). Rethinking Gender from the South. Feminist Studies, 40(3), 518-539.

Council of Europe. (1992). European charter for regional or minority languages. European Treaty Series - No. 148. http://www.coe.int/en/web/european-charter-regional-or-minority-languages/text-of-the-charter

Council of Europe. (1995). Treaty 157. (n.d.). Framework convention for the protection ofnational minorities. http://www.coe.int/en/web/minorities/text-of-the-convention

Crenshaw, K. (1989). Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Antidiscrimination Doctrine, Feminist Theory and Antiracist Politics. University of Chicago Legal Forum, 138-167.

Crenshaw, K. (1991). Mapping the Margins: Identity Politics, Intersectionality and Violence against Women. Stanford Law Review, 43, 1241-1279.

Engebrigtsen, A., & Lidén, H. (2010). Å finne sin plass som minoritet — Rombefolkningen i Norge i dag. In A. B. Lund, & B. B. Moen (Eds.), Nasjonale minoriteter i det flerkulturelle Norge (pp. 199-214). Tapir akademiske forlag.

Fangen, K. (2004). Deltagende observasjon. Fagbokforlaget.

Fekete, L. (2014). Europe against the Roma. Race & Class, 55(3), 60-70.

Gressgård, R. (2005). Fra identitet til forskjell. Scandinavian Academic Press.

Gullestad, M. (2002). Invisible Fences: Egalitarianism, Nationalism and Racism. The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 8(1), 45-63.

Hagatun, K. (2019a). The Educational Situation for Roma in Norway. A country study In A. Óhidy, & K. R. Forray (Eds.), Lifelong Learning and the Roma Minority in Western and Southern Europe (pp. 91-112). Emerald publishing.

Hagatun, K. (2019b). “They assume that I don’t really want education for my children”: Roma mothers’ experiences with the Norwegian educational system. HERJ Hungarian Educational Research Journal, 9(1 Special issue: Roma women and education), 9-21. https://doi.org/10.1556/063.9.2019.1.2

Hancock, I. (1987). The Pariah Syndrome: An account of Gypsy slavery and persecution. Karoma Publishers. https://www.oocities.org/~patrin/pariah-contents.htm

Hancock, I. (2002). We are the Romani people = Ame sam e Rromane dz̆ene. University of Hertfordshire Press.

Hancock, I. (2004). The Concoctors: Creating Fake Romani Culture. In N. Saul, & S. Tebutt (Eds.), The Role of the Romanies: Images and Counter-Images of "Gypsies"/Romanies in European Cultures (pp. 85-98). Liverpool University.

Helakorpi, J., Lappalainen, S., & Mietola, R. (2018). Equality in the Making? Roma and Traveller Minority Policies and Basic Education in Three Nordic Countries. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1080/00313831.2018.1485735

Lauritzen, S. M., & Nodeland, T. S. (2018). “What is the problem represented to be?” Two decades of research on Roma and education in Europe. Educational Research Review, 24, 148-169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2018.04.002

Lawrence-Lightfoot, S. (1983). The good high school. Baasic Books.

Lawrence-Lightfoot, S. (2005). Reflections on Portraiture: A Dialogue Between Art and Science. Qualitative Inquiry, 11(1), 3-15. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077800404270955

Lawrence-Lightfoot, S., & Davis, J. H. (1997). The Art and Science of Portraiture. Jossey-Bass.

Lugones, M. (2008). The Coloniality of Gender. Worlds & Knowledges Otherwise, 1-17.

Lugones, M. (2010). Toward a Decolonial Feminism. Hypatia, 25(4), 742-759.

Maldonado-Torres, N. (2007). On the Coloniality of Being. Cultural Studies, 21(2-3), 240-270. https://doi.org/10.1080/09502380601162548

Mignolo, W. D., & Walsh, C. E. (2018). On Decoloniality: Concepts, Analytics, Praxis. Duke University Press.

Ortner, S. B. (2011). SPECIFYING AGENCY The Comaroffs and Their Critics. Interventions, 3(1), 76-84. https://doi.org/10.1080/13698010020027038

Palmberg, M. (2009). The Nordic Colonial Mind. In S. Keskinen, S. Tuori, S. Inri, & D. Mulinari (Eds.), Complying wth Colonialism. Gender, Race and Ethnicity in the Nordic Region (pp. 35-50). Ashgate Publishing.

Quijano, A. (2000). Coloniality of Power, Eurocentrism, and Latin America. Nepantla: Views from South, 1(3), 533-580.

Rosvoll, M., & Bielenberg, N. (2012). Antisiganisme, stereotyper og diskriminering av rom [Antiziganism, stereotypes and discrimination of Roma] HL-senterets temahefte nr.14. http://www.hlsenteret.no/publikasjoner/digitale-hefter/pdf/hl_temahefte_14_digital.pdf

Rosvoll, M., Lien, L., & Brustad, J. A. (2015). «Å bli dem kvit». Utviklingen av en «sigøynerpolitikk» og utryddelsen av norske rom. Center for Studies of Holocaust and Religious Minorities.

Said, E. (1978). Orientalism. Pantheon.

Schall, V. (2017). Språk, identitet og minoritetspolitikk. In N. Brandal, C. A. Døving, & I. Thorson Plesner (Eds.), Nasjonale minoriteter og urfolk i norsk politikk fra 1900 til 2016. Cappelen Damm Akademisk.

Solórzano, D. G., & Yosso, T. J. (2002). Critical Race Methodology: Counter-Storytelling as an Analytical Framework for Education Research. Qualitative Inquiry, 8(1), 23-44.

Svendsen, S. H. B. (2013). Learning racism in the absence of ‘race’. European Journal of Women's Studies, 21(1), 9-24. http://doi.org/10.1177/1350506813507717

The equality and anti-discrimination ombudsman [LDO]. (2018). CERD 2018. Ombudets rapport til FN's rasediskrimineringskomité – et supplement til Norges 23./24. periodiske rapport [The ombudsmans report to UN's Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination]. http://www.ldo.no/cerd2018

The European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (2013). Annual report 2013. Fundamental rights: challenges and achievements in 2013. Chapter 7: Roma integration.

Tom, M. N., Suárez-Krabbe, J., & Caballero Castro, T. (2017). Pedagogy of Absence, Conflict, and Emergence. Contributions to the Decolonization of Education from the Native American, Afro-Portuguese, and Romani Experiences. Comparative Education Review, 61(S1), 121-145.

Trøften, D. (2010). Skolen er fra Mars, elevene er fra Venus: utdanning i et multietnisk samfunn. (OMOD-rapport, nr: 2010). OMOD, Oslo.

Tuck, E., & Yang, W. K. (2012). Decolonization is not a metaphor. Decolonization: Indigeneity, Education & Society, 1(1), 1-40.

Tyldum, G., & Friberg, J. H. (2014). Et skritt på veien: Evaluering av handlingsplan for å bedre levekårene blant rom i Oslo [First step: Evaluation of the action plan to improve the living conditions of the Roma in Oslo] (Fafo-rapport 2014:50). http://www.fafo.no/index.php/zoo-publikasjoner/fafo-rapporter/item/et-skritt-pa-veien

van Baar, H. (2011). Europe's Romaphobia: Problematization, Securitization, Nomadization. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 29(2), 203-212. https://doi.org/10.1068/d2902ed1

Wekker, G. (2016). White innocence : paradoxes of colonialism and race. Duke University Press.

Westrheim, K., & Hagatun, K. (2015). Hva betyr «kompetanse for mangfold» i utdanningssystemet? Et kritisk perspektiv på mangfolddiskursen. Norsk Pedagogisk Tidsskrift, 99(3-4), 168-180.

Downloads

Published

2020-07-03

How to Cite

Hagatun, K. . (2020). Silenced Narratives on Schooling and Future: The Educational Situation for Roma Children in Norway. Nordic Journal of Comparative and International Education (NJCIE), 4(1), 118–137. https://doi.org/10.7577/njcie.3578