Design Process Models as Metaphors in Education Context



Emneord (Nøkkelord):

visual representations, design education, didactic image, design thinking models, design process models


We argue that visual representations of design processes contribute toward social and material practices of design(ing). They are used as didactic devices. We will discuss them using metaphors to illustrate that they are active material devices of which circulation, production and consumption are informed and informing perceived complexities, ambiguities and paradoxes associated with design. We propose a follow-up study to investigate how teachers and designers use and interpret visual design process models. The reason is to identify how these models are informing what design is as we are interested to understand how these models are contributing to the development of Design Literacies.


Úrsula Bravo, Universidad del Desarrollo, Chile

Assistant professor

Erik Bohemia, OsloMet - storbyuniversitetet

Guest lecturer/ Associate Professor (PhD) 



Akin, Ö. (1986). A Formalism for Problem Restructuring and Resolution in Design. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 13(2), 223–232.

Alexander, C. (1973). Notes on the Synthesis of Form. Harvard University Press. (Original work published 1964)

Allende, N. (2016). Design thinking en las salas de clases [Design thinking trickling into classrooms]. Base Diseño e Innovación, 2, 150–157.

Banathy, B. H. (1996). Designing Social Systems in a Changing World. Plenum Press.

Banks, M. (2007). Using visual data in qualitative research. SAGE Publications.

Bason, C., & Austin, R. D. (2019). The Right Way to Lead Design Thinking. Harvard Business Review, (March-April), 82–91.

Berger, A. A. (2010). The Objects of Affection: Semiotics and Consumer Culture (Semiotics and Popular Culture). Palgrave Macmillan.

Bobbe, T., Krzywinski, J., & Woelfel, C. (2016). A Comparison of Design Process Models from Academic Theory and Professional Practice. In D. Marjanovic, M. Storga, P. Neven, N. Bojcetic, & S. Stanko (Eds.), DS 84: Proceedings of the DESIGN 2016: 14th International Design Conference (pp. 1205–1214). Design Society.

Bowker, G. C., & Star, S. L. (2000). Sorting Things Out: Classification and Its Consequences. MIT Press.

Brown, T. (2009). Change by Design: How Design Thinking Creates New Alternatives for Business and Society: How Design Thinking Can Transform Organizations and Inspire Innovation. HarperCollins.

Buchanan, R. (1992). Wicked Problems in Design Thinking. Design Issues, 8(2), 5–21.

Chestnut, W. R. (1997). Quality Assurance: an Australian Guide to ISO 9000 Certification. Addison Wesley.

Cross, N. (1982). Designerly ways of knowing. Design Studies, 3(4), 221–227.

Cross, N. (2005 [1999]). Engineering Design Methods Strategies for Product Design (4th ed.). John Wiley & Sons.

Cross, N. (2011). Design Thinking: Understanding How Designers Think and Work. Berg Publishers., Both, T., & Baggereor, D. (2013). Bootcamp Bootleg.

Dall’Alba, G. (2009). Learning Professional Ways of Being: Ambiguities of becoming. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 41(1), 34–45.

Design Council, Kolarz, P., Simmonds, P. O., Francis, C., Kovacs, H., Sharp, T., & Wain, M. (2015). Innovation by Design. Design Council.

DFC Global Inc. (2019). Design for Change.

Díaz Barriga Arceo, F., & Rojas, G. H. (2002). Estrategias docentes para un aprendizaje significativo : una interpretación constructivista [Teaching strategies for meaningful learning: a constructivist interpretation] (2a ed.). McGraw-Hill Interamericana.

DiGiorgio, N. (2013). TEM|FAB Studio: A Teachers’ Lounge for Learning and Making. FabLab Teacher Studio.

Dorst, K. (2011). The core of ‘design thinking’ and its application. Design Studies, 32(6), 521–532.

Dorst, K., & Cross, N. (2001). Creativity in the design process: co-evolution of problem-solution. Design Studies, 22(5), 425–437.

du Gay, P., Hall, S., Janes, L., Mackay, H., & Negus, K. (1997). Doing Cultural Studies: The Story of the Sony Walkman. SAGE Publications.

Dubberly, H. (2005). How do you design? A Compendium of Models. Dubberly Design Studio

Dubberly, H. (2008). Toward a Model of Innovation. Interactions, 18(1), 28–36.

Dubberly, H., Evenson, S., & Robinson, R. (2008). On modeling: The analysis-systhesis bridge model. Interactions, 15(2), 57–61.

Fry, T. (2011). Design as Politics. Berg.

Gellert, U. (2004). Didactic material confronted with the concept of mathematical literacy. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 55(1), 163–179.

Gericke, K., & Blessing, L. (2012). An analysis of design process models across disciplines. In M. Dorian, S. Mario, P. Neven, & B. Nenad (Eds.), DS 70: Proceedings of DESIGN 2012: 12th International Design Conference (Vol. Design processes, pp. 171–180). Design Society.

Glen, R., Suciu, C., Baughn, C. C., & Anson, R. (2015). Teaching design thinking in business schools. The International Journal of Management Education, 13(2), 182–192.

Hall, S. (Ed.) (1997). Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices. SAGE Publications.

Hamson, N. (2003). Quality, Quality, Management, and Project Management. In E. Verzuh (Ed.), The Portable MBA in Project Management (pp. 207–246). John Wiley & Sons.

Hassi, L., & Laakso, M. (2011). Conceptions of Design Thinking in the Design and Management Discourses: Open Questions and Possible Directions for Research. In N. Roozenburg, L.-L. Chen, & P. J. Stappers (Eds.), IASDR2011, 4th World Conference on Design Research. International Association of Societies of Design Research (IASDR).

Heller, S. (2004). Design literacy: Understanding Graphic Design (2nd ed.). Allworth Press.

Holliday, A. (1999). Small Cultures. Applied Linguistics, 20(20), 237–264.

Howard, T. J., Culley, S. J., & Dekoninck, E. (2008). Describing the creative design process by the integration of engineering design and cognitive psychology literature. Design Studies, 29(2), 160-180.

IDEO. (2009). Design Kit: The Human-Centered Design Toolkit.

INDEX: Design to Improve Life. (2019). Compass.

Ingram, J., Shove, E., & Watson, M. (2007). Products and Practices: Selected Concepts from Science and Technology Studies and from Social Theories of Consumption and Practice. Design Issues, 23(2), 3–16.

Ishikawa, K. (1985). What Is Total Quality Control? - The Japanese Way (D. J. Lu, Trans.). Prentice-Hall.

Jermier, J. M., & Forbes, L. C. (2011). Metaphor as the Foundation of Organizational Studies: Images of Organization and Beyond. Organization & Environment, 24(4), 444–458.

Johansson-Sköldberg, U., Woodilla, J., & Çetinkaya, M. (2013). Design Thinking: Past, Present and Possible Futures. Creativity and Innovation Management, 22(2), 121–146.

Kelley, T., & Kelley, D. (2013). Creative confidence: unleashing the creative potential within us all. Crown Business.

Kitano, & Toyota Motor Manufacturing. (1997, 14-16 May). Toyota Production System: "one-by-one confirmation". Paper presented at the Lean Manufacturing Conference, University of Kentucky.

Koberg, D., & Bagnall, J. (1981 [1972]). The All New Universal Traveler: A Soft-Systems Guide to Creativity, Problem-Solving, and the Process of Reaching Goals. William KaufmannLos.

Kolko, J. (2018). We are illiterate: We have no design literacy. The Modernist Studio.

Kress, G., & van Leeuwen, T. (2006). Reading Images (2nd ed.). Routledge.

Kumar, V. (2012). 101 Design Methods: A Structured Approach for Driving Innovation in Your Organization. John Wiley & Sons.

Lawson, B. (2004). What Designers Know. Architectural Press.

Lawson, B. (2005). How Designers Think: The Design Process Demystified (4th ed.). Architectural Press.

Liedtka, J., & Ogilvie, T. (2011). Designing for Growth: A Design Thinking Toolkit for Managers. Columbia Business School Publishing.

Maher, M. L., Poon, J., & Boulanger, S. (1996). Formalising Design Exploration as Co-Evolution. In J. S. Gero & F. Sudweeks (Eds.), Advances in Formal Design Methods for CAD: Proceedings of the IFIP WG5.2 Workshop on Formal Design Methods for Computer-Aided Design, June 1995 (pp. 3–30). Springer US.

Martin, R. L. (2009). The design of business: why design thinking is the next competitive advantage. Harvard Business Press.

McComb, C., Cagan, J., & Kotovsky, K. (2014). Quantitative Comparison of High- and Low-Performing Teams in a Design Task Subject to Drastic Changes. In ASME 2014 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference (Vol. 7: 2nd Biennial International Conference on Dynamics for Design; 26th International Conference on Design Theory and Methodology).

McComb, C., Cagan, J., & Kotovsky, K. (2015). Rolling with the punches: An examination of team performance in a design task subject to drastic changes. Design Studies, 36, 99–121.

Meirelles, I. (2013). Design for information: an introduction to the histories, theories, and best practices behind effective information visualizations. Rockport Publishers.

Mijksenaar, U. (1974). Signposting and Communication Media. Icographic 7, 15–21.

Mol, A. (2008). The logic of care: Health and the Problem of Patient Choice. Routledge.

Morgan, G. (1997 [1986]). Images of Organization (2nd ed.). SAGE Publications.

Munari, B. (1989 [1981]). Cómo Nacen los Objetos: Apuntes para una metodología proyectual [How Objects Are Born: Notes for a project methodology](G. Gili, Trans. 3a ed.). Publicado por Gius.

Nielsen, L. M. (2013). Design Learning for Tomorrow – Design Education from Kindergarten to PhD. In J. B. Reitan, P. Lloyd, E. Bohemia, L. M. Nielsen, I. Digranes, & E. Lutnæs (Eds.), Design Education from Kindergarten to PhD – Design Learning for Tomorrow: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference for Design Education Researchers (pp. i-iii). ABM-media.

Norman, D. A., & Verganti, R. (2013). Incremental and Radical Innovation: Design Research vs. Technology and Meaning Change. Design Issues, 30(1), 78-96.

Ohno, T. (1988). Toyota Production System: Beyond Large-Scale Production. Routledge. (Original work published 1978)

Pacione, C. (2010). Evolution of the Mind: A Case for Design Literacy. Interactions, 17(2), 6–11.

Pacione, C. (2017). Let's Do Right by Design by Helping Everyone Else Do Design Right. Design Management Review, 28(4), 29–31.

Razzouk, R., & Shute, V. (2012). What Is Design Thinking and Why Is It Important? Review of Educational Research, 82(3), 330–348.

Rittel, H. W. J., & Webber, M. M. (1973). Dilema in a General Theory of Planning. Policy Science, 4, 155–169.

Riverdale Country School, & IDEO. (2012). Design Thinking for Educators Toolkit.

Simon, H. A. (1988). The Science of Design: Creating the Artificial. Design Issues, 4(1/2), 67–82.

Stenlev, L., & Boegeskov, L. (2016). Index: Aprendizaje innovador desde el colegio: La experiencia danesa [Innovative learning from school: the Danish experiencie]. Base Diseño e Innovación, 3(2), 50–61.

Stigliani, I. (2017, 22 June). Design thinking — the skill every MBA student needs. Financial Times.

Tversky, B. (2001). Structures of Mental Spaces. In M. Gattis (Ed.), Spatial Schemas and Abstract Thought. MIT Press.

Ulrich, K. T., & Eppinger, S. D. (2000). Product Design and Development (2nd ed.). McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

Ulrich, K. T., & Eppinger, S. D. (2004). Product Design and Development (3rd ed.). McGraw- Hill/Irwin.

Watson, A. D. (2015). Design Thinking for Life AU - Watson, Andrew D. Art Education, 68(3), 12–18.

Watson, G. H. (1993). Strategic Benchmarking: How to rate your company's performance against the world's best. John Wiley & Sons.

Wilkes, P. V. (1989). Images of Organization: An Essay Review. Journal of Educational Administration, 27(2), 67–71.

Wölfel , C., Debitz, U., Krzywinski, J., & Stelzer, R. (2012). Methods Use in Early Stages of Engineering and Industrial Design – A Comparative Field Exploration. In D. Marjanović, M. Štorga, N. Pavković, & N. Bojčetić (Eds.), DS 70: Proceedings of DESIGN 2012, the 12th International Design Conference (Vol. 3, pp. 1397–1404). Design Society.

Wynn, D., & Clarkson, J. (2005). Models of Design. In J. Clarkson & C. Eckert (Eds.), Design process improvement (pp. 34–59). Springer Verlag.




Hvordan referere

Bravo, Úrsula ., & Bohemia, E. . (2021). Design Process Models as Metaphors in Education Context. FormAkademisk, 14(4).

Cited by