Scientifically Designed Teacher Education

Teacher Educators’ Perceptions in Norway and Finland




scientifically-designed teacher education, teacher educators, research, comparative, quantitative


This paper investigates teacher educators’ perceptions of scientifically designed teacher education in Finland and Norway and asks the following research questions: How do teacher educators in Finland and Norway perceive scientifically designed teacher education? How do they perceive teacher education regarding the research-led, research-tutored, research-based, and research-oriented dimensions? The study is comparative and uses a quantitative methodological approach based on a questionnaire survey administered to teacher educators in three departments of teacher education, two in Norway and one in Finland. The findings indicate overall positive and quite similar perceptions between the two countries. Despite the similarities, there were differences, particularly in the dimension concerning teacher-focused activities and in the research-tutored dimension. Furthermore, teacher educators’ perceptions were more varied among the Norwegian teacher educators, compared to the Finnish respondents.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


Alvunger, D., & Wahlström, N. (2018). Research-based teacher education? Exploring the meaning potentials of Swedish teacher education. Teachers and Teaching, 24(4), 332–349.

Baan, J., Gaikhorst, L., Noordende, J., & Volman, M. (2019). The involvement in inquiry-based working of teachers of research-intensive versus practically oriented teacher education programmes. Teaching and Teacher Education, 84, 74–82.

Baan, J., Gaikhorst, L., & Volman, M. (2020). Stimulating teachers’ inquiring attitude in academic and professional teacher education programmes. European Journal of Teacher Education, 43(3), 352–367.

BERA. British Educational Research Association. (2014). The role of research in teacher education: Reviewing the evidence. Interim Report of the BERA–RSA Inquiry.

Boone, H. N., & Boone, D. A. (2012). Analyzing Likert data. Journal of Extension, 50(2).

Burn, K., & Mutton, T. (2015). A review of ‘research-informed clinical practice’ in initial teacher education. Oxford Review of Education, 41(2), 217–233.

Cochran-Smith, M., & Fries, K. (2008). Research on teacher education: Changing times, changing paradigms. In M. Cochran-Smith, S. Feiman-Nemser, J. McIntyre, & K. Demers (Eds.), Handbook of research on teacher education: Enduring questions in changing contexts (3rd ed., pp. 1050–1093). Routledge.

Cochran-Smith, M., Stringer Keefe, E., & Cummings Carney, C. M. (2018). Teacher educators as reformers: Competing agendas. European Journal of Teacher Education, 41(5), 572–590.

Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16(3), 297–334.

Ellis, V., McNicholl, J., Blake, A., & McNally, J. (2014). Academic work and proletarianisation: A study of higher education-based teacher educators. Teaching and Teacher Education, 40, 33–43.

Elstad, E. (2020). Lærerutdanninger i nordiske land [Teacher educations in the Nordic countries]. In E. Elstad (Ed.), Lærerutdanning i nordiske land [Teacher education in the Nordic countries] (pp. 17–66). Universitetsforlaget.

Esser, F., & Vliegenthart, R. (2017). Comparative research methods. In J. Matthes, C. S. Davis, & R. Potter (Eds.), The International Encyclopedia of Communication Research Methods (pp. 248–269). Wiley-Blackwell.

Finnish Advisory Board on Research Integrity. (2012). Responsible conduct of research and procedures for handling allegations of misconduct in Finland. Helsinki, Finland.

Flores, M. A. (2018). Tensions and possibilities in teacher educators’ roles and professional development. European Journal of Teacher Education, 41(1), 1–3.

General Data Protection Regulation (2016/679). Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 April 2016 on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data, and repealing Directive 95/46/EC. (16/679).

George, D., & Mallery, P. (2003). SPSS for Windows step by step: A simple guide and reference. 11.0 update (4th ed.). Allyn & Bacon.

Goodwin, A. L., Smith, L., Souto-Manning, M., Cheruvu, R., Tan, M. Y., Reed, R., & Taveras, L. (2014). What should teacher educators know and be able to do? Perspectives from practicing teacher educators. Journal of Teacher Education, 65(4), 284–302.

Griffiths, R. (2004). Knowledge production and the research – Teaching nexus: The case of the built environment disciplines. Studies in Higher Education, 29(6), 709–726.

Grissom, R. J., & Kim, J. J. (2012). Effect sizes for research: Univariate and multivariate applications (2nd ed.). Routledge.

Hansén, S-E. (2015). Utblickar på reformer av lärarutbildning och utbildningssatsningar i Norden [Looking at reforms of teacher education and educational initiatives in the Nordic region]. Kasvatus, 46(4), 389-395.

Hansén, S-E. & Sjöberg, J. & Eilertsen, T. V. (2014). Finske reformidéer i norsk lærerutdanningsdiskurs [Finnish reform ideas in Norwegian teacher education discourse]. In K.A. Røvik, T.V. Eilertsen & E. Moksnes Furu (Eds.), Reformideer i norsk skole. Spredning, oversettelse og implementering [Reform ideas in Norwegian schools. Dissemination, translation and implementation] (pp. 167–193). Cappelen Damm Akademisk.

Harrison, J., & McKeon, F. (2010). Perceptions of beginning teacher educators of their development in research and scholarship: Identifying the ‘turning point’ experiences. Journal of Education for Teaching, 36(1), 19–34.

Healey, M. (2005). Linking research and teaching: Exploring disciplinary spaces and the role of inquiry-based learning. In R. Barnett (Ed.), Reshaping the university: New relationships between research, scholarship and teaching (pp. 67–78). Open University Press.

Hökkä, P., Vähäsantanen, K., & Mahlakaarto, S. (2017). Teacher educators’ collective professional agency and identity – Transforming marginality to strength. Teaching and Teacher Education, 63, 36–46.

Izadinia, M. (2014). Teacher educators’ identity: A review of literature. European Journal of Teacher Education, 37(4), 426–441.

Jakhelln, R., & Lund, T. (2019). Masterveiledning – en utfordring for grunnskolelærerutdanningen [Supervision at the master’s level – A challenge for the teacher education for primary and secondary school]. Uniped, 42(2), 168–179.

Jenkins, A., & Healey, M. (2015). International perspectives on strategies to support faculty who teach students via research and inquiry. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 35(3), 31–37.

Kansanen, P. (2014). Teaching as a master’s level profession in Finland: Theoretical reflections and practical solutions. In O. McNamara, J. Murray, & M. Jones (Eds.), Workplace Learning in Teacher Education. Professional Learning and Development in Schools and Higher Education (pp. 279–292). Springer Science-Business Media Dordrecht.

Kansanen, P., Hansén, S.-E., Sjöberg, J., & Kroksmark, T. (2017). Vad är allmän¬didaktik? [What is general didactics?] In S.-E. Hansén, & L. Forsman (Eds.), Allmändidaktik – Vetenskap för Lärare [General didactics¬–Science for teachers]. Studentlitteratur.

Kelley, T. (1935). An unbiased correlation ratio measure. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 21(9), 554–559.

Klieme, K., Lehmann, T., & Schmidt-Borcherding, F. (2020). Fostering professionalism and scientificity through integration of disciplinary and research knowledge. In T. Lehmann (Ed.), International perspectives on knowledge integration: Theory, research, and good practice in pre-service teacher and higher education (pp. 78–107). Brill.

Krokfors, L., Kynäslahti, H., Stenberg, K., Toom, A., Maaranen, K., Jyrhämä, R., Byman, R., & Kansanen, P. (2011). Investigating Finnish teacher educators’ views on research-based teacher education. Teaching Education 22(1), 1–13.

Likert, R. (1932). A technique for the measurement of attitudes. Archives of Psychology, 22(140), 1–55.

Maaranen, K., Kynäslahti, H., Byman, R., Jyrhämä, R., & Sintonen, S. (2019). Teacher education matters: Finnish teacher educators’ concerns, beliefs, and values. European Journal of Teacher Education, 42(2), 211–227.

McGraw, K. O., & Wong, S.P. (1992). A common language effect size statistic. Psychological Bulletin, 111, 361–365.

Ministry of Education and Research. (2010). Forskrift om rammeplan for grunnskolelærerutdanningene for 1.-7. trinn og 5.-10. trinn [Regulations Relating to the Framework Plan for Primary and Lower Secondary Teacher Education for Years 1–7 and 5–10].

Munthe, M., & Rogne, M. (2015). Research based teacher education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 46, 17–24.

Nasser-Abu Alhija, F. M., & Majdob, A. (2017). Predictors of teacher educators’ research productivity. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 42(11), 34–51.

Niemi, H., & Jakku-Sihvonen, R. (2006). Research-based teacher education. In R. Jakku-Sihvonen, & H. Niemi (Eds.), Research-based teacher education in Finland. Reflections by Finnish teacher educators (pp. 31–50). Research in Educational Studies, 25.

Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric Theory (2nd ed.). McGraw-Hill.

Ping, C., Schellings, G., & Beijaard, D. (2018). Teacher educators’ professional learning: A literature review. Teaching and Teacher Education, 75, 93–104.

Puustinen, M., Santti, J., Koski, A., & Tammi, T. (2018). Teaching: A practical or research-based profession? Teacher candidates’ approaches to research-based teacher education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 74, 170–179.

R Core Team (2019). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria.

Smith, K., & Flores, M. A. (2019). The Janus faced teacher educator. European Journal of Teacher Education, 42(4), 433–446.

Tirri, K. (2014). The last 40 years in teacher education. Journal of Education for Teaching, 40(5), 600–609.

Vanassche, E., Rust, R., Conway, P. F., Smith, K., Tack, H., & Vanderlinde, R. (2015). InFo-TED: Bringing policy, research, and practice. Together around teacher educator development. In C. Craig, & L. Orland-Barack (Eds.), International teacher education: Promising pedagogies (Part C). Advances in research on teaching, Volume 22C (pp. 341–364). Emerald Group Publishing.

Willemse, T. M., & Boei, F. (2013). Teacher educators’ research practices: An explorative study of teacher educators’ perceptions on research. Journal of Education for Teaching, 39(4), 354–369.




How to Cite

Aspfors, J., Eklund, G., Holand, A., Fiskum, T., Hansén, S.-E., & Jegstad, K. (2021). Scientifically Designed Teacher Education : Teacher Educators’ Perceptions in Norway and Finland. Nordic Journal of Comparative and International Education (NJCIE), 5(1), 85–103.