A Child-Centred Discourse in Zambian Kindergartens?

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.7577/njcie.4148

Keywords:

child-centred teaching, discourse, kindergarten, ECCDE, Zambia

Abstract

This article aims to identify and discuss the existence and strengthening of a child-centred teaching discourse in Zambian kindergartens. The article is based on the understanding that the teacher-directed approach to teaching is a historically based hegemonic discourse within Zambian kindergartens. This means that the teacher-directed teaching discourse dominates thinking in many ways and is translated into institutional arrangements (Hajer, 1995, in Svarstad, 2005, p. 243). Several studies have pointed to the challenges posed by the teacher-directed teaching discourse in kindergartens in Sub-Saharan Africa as a hindrance of pedagogical quality in such institutions, pointing to a child-centred teaching discourse as an important path towards development (EFA, 2015, p. 208, Temba, 2014, p. 110; Mwaura et al., 2008; 2011). This article includes a positive discourse analysis of the Zambian Education Curriculum Framework[1] and a small-scale qualitative study, based on observations from four classrooms in four kindergartens in the Copperbelt province of Zambia. The article focuses on conducting a positive discourse analysis of the elements of child-centred teaching discourse observed in one of the four classrooms. The findings point to the existence of a child-centred teaching discourse in the Zambian Education Curriculum Framework. However, only one of the four Zambian kindergarten teachers seemed to implement teaching practices that could be identified as a child-centred teaching discourse. The elements of a child-centred teaching discourse identified through the positive discourse analysis were: the kindergarten teachers’ professional decisions, good interaction with children, use of a variety of materials, and children’s participation. The findings are discussed in light of the Zambian Education Curriculum Framework as well as theoretical perspectives on child-centred teaching discourse, argumentation theory and children’s right to participation. Finally, the article includes a critical discussion of how the findings may strengthen a child-centred teaching discourse in Zambian kindergartens.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Elisabeth Almaz Berger Eriksen, Oslo Metropolitan University

Assistant Professor, Department of Early Childhood Education.

References

Akello, D. L., Timmerman, G., & Namusisi, S. (2016). Teaching reading and writing in local language using the child-centred pedagogy in Uganda. Language and Education, (30)3, 252-266. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500782.2015.1106553

Bae, B. (2018). Politikk, lek og læring. Barnehageliv fra mange kanter. Fagbokforlaget.

Bae, B. (2012). Children and teachers as partners in communication: Focus on Spacious and Narrow Interactional patterns. International Journal of Early Childhood, 44(1), 53-69. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13158-012-0052-3

Bae, B. (2001). Qualitative Aspects of Dialogue between Children and Adults in Pre-school Institutions. Paper at the 23rd World Congress of OMEP, Santiago, Chile, 2001.

Bae, B. (1995). The Child`s Experience as a Learner in Pre School Institutions. In E. Befring (Ed.), Teacher Education for Equality. Papers from the 20th Annual ATEE Conference, Oslo College, 1995: 452-458.

Birkeland, L (2003). Storytelling and staff training: a narrative approach to reflective practice. In N. Hall (Ed.), Occasional papers 2002 (pp. 115-122). University of Greenwich.

Birkeland, L. (1998). Pedagogiske erobringer: Om praksisfortellinger og vurdering i barnehagen. Pedagogisk forum

Bruner, J. S. (1966). Studies in Cognitive Growth. A collaboration at the Center for Cognitive Studies. John Wiley & Sons.

Chung, S., & Walsh, D. J. (2000). Unpacking child-centredness: A history of meanings. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 32(2), 215-234. https://doi.org/10.1080/002202700182727

Committee on the Rights of The Child (2006). General Comment No. 7 Implementing child rights in early childhood. In Geneva. Microsoft Word - 44380.doc (childrensrights.ie)

Dewey, J. (1916). Democracy and Education. MacMillan.

EFA Global Monitoring Report Team (2015). Education for All 2000–2015: Achievements and Challenges. (UNESCO). http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002322/232205e.pdf

EFA Global Monitoring Report Team (2016). Education for People and Planet. Creating sustainable futures. (UNESCO). https://en.unesco.org/gem-report/report/2016/education-people-and-planet-creating-sustainable-futures-all

Fallace, T. (2015). The Savage Origins of Child-Centered Pedagogy, 1871-1913. American Educational Research Journal, 52(1), 73-103. https://doi.org/10.3102%2F0002831214561629

Flyvbjerg, B. (2016). Five Misunderstandings about case study research. Qualitative inquiry. 12(2), 219–245. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077800405284363

Freire, P. (1972). Pedagogy of the Oppressed. Penguin.

Fröbel, F. (1887). The Education of Man. International Education Series: Vol 5. (W.N.Hailmann, Trans.) D. Appleton & Company. https://doi.org/10.1037/12739-000

Gee, J. P. (2014). How to do discourse analysis, a toolkit. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203850992

Goble, P. (2014). Examining Child-Centered and Direct Instruction Approaches to Early Education. Doctoral dissertation, Arizona State University. https://search.proquest.com/docview/1566951733?pq-origsite=primo

Iruka, I. U., Mount-Cors, M. F., Odom, S. L., Naoom, S. & Van Dyke, M. (2012). Development and Sustainability of High-Quality Early Childhood Education Programs in Zambia. In J. A. Sutterby (Ed.), Early Education in a Global Context. Vol. 16, pp. 127–158. Emerald Group Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1108/S0270-4021(2012)0000016009

Jokstad, G. Reigstad, I., & Unneland, A.R. (2013). Å drømme om morgendagen: Aksjonsforskning i egen praksis. Nordic Studies in Education, 33, 233–248.

Jørgensen, M. & Phillips, L. (2002). Discourse Analysis as Theory and Method. Sage. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781849208871

Langford, R. (2010). Critiquing Child-Centred Pedagogy to Bring Children and Early Childhood Educators into the Centre of a Democratic Pedagogy. Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, (11)1, 113-127. http://dx.doi.org/10.2304/ciec.2010.11.1.113

Lerkkanen, M.- K., Kiuru, N., Pakarinen, E., Viljaranta, J., Poikkeus, A-M., Rasku-Puttonen, H., Siekkinen, M., & Nurmi, J- E. (2012). The Role of Practices in the Development of Children's Interest in Reading and Mathematics in Kindergarten. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 37(4), 266–279. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2011.03.004

Macgilchrist, F. (2007). Positive Discourse Analysis: Contesting Dominant Discourses by Reframing the Issues. Critical Approaches to Discourse Analysis Across Disciplines, 1(1), 74–94.

Martin, J. R. (2004). Positive Discourse Analysis: Solidarity and Change. Revista Canaria de Estudios Ingleses, 49, 179–200. Universidad de La Laguna.

McCoy, D. C., Zuilkowski, S. S, Yoshikawa, H., & Fink, G. (2017). Early Childhood Care and Education and School Readiness in Zambia. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 10(3), 482–506, https://doi.org/10.1080/19345747.2016.1250850

Melkers, J. (2009). Assessing the outcomes of student involvement in research: educational outcomes in an engineering research center. Research Evaluation, 18(4), 313–322. https://doi.org/10.3152/095820209x475351

Ministry of Education, Education Sector (2010). National Implementation Framework III, 2011 - 2015 Implementing the Sixth National Development Plan. Ministry of Education.

Ministry of Education, Science, Vocational Training and Early Education (2013). Zambia Curriculum Education Framework. Curriculum Development Centre.

Ministry of General Education (MoGE) (2018). Educational Statistical Bulletin of General Education. MoGE.

Morelli, G., Quinn, N., Chaudhary, N., Vicedo, M., Rosabal-Coto, M., Keller, H., & Takada, A. (2018). Ethical challenges of parenting interventions in low-to middle-income countries. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 49(1), 5-24. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022117746241

Morgan, J. (2013). International recognition of children’s rights and its influence on early childhood education and care: The case of Zambia. In J. Georgeson, & J. Payler (Eds.), International Perspectives on Early Childhood Education and Care (pp. 18–28). Open University Press. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781526451811.n2

Mwaura, P. A. M., Sylva, K., & Malmberg, L-E (2008). Evaluating the Madrasa Kindergarten Programme in East Africa: A Quasi-Experimental Study. International Journal of Early Years Education, 16(3), 237–255. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669760802357121

Mwaura, P.A.M., Sylva, K., & Malmberg, L. E. (2011). Effects of a kindergarten intervention on cognitive development among East-African kindergarten children: A flexibly time-coded growth model. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 26(1), 124–133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2010.04.003

Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research (2018). The kindergarten profession – present and future. https://www.regjeringen.no/no/dokumenter/the-kindergarten-teaching-profession--present-and-future/id2662934/

Nsamenang, B. A., & Lo-Oh., J. L. (2010). Afrique Noire. In M. H. Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of Cultural Developmental Science (p. 383-407). Psychology Press Taylor & Francis Group.

Prochner, L., & Kabiru, M. (2008). ECD in Africa: A historical perspective. In M. Garcia, A. Pence & J. L. Evans (Eds.), Africa’s Future, Africa’s Challenge: Early Childhood Care and Development in Sub-Saharan Africa (pp. 140–155). World Bank. https://doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-6886-2

Samovar, L.A, Porter, R.E., & McDaniel, E.R (2007). Communication between cultures. Thomson Wadsworth.

Sandvik, M. (2013): Argumentation in broadcast election campaign discourse. Towards a rhetorical reconstruction. In A. Fetzer (Ed.), The Pragmatics of Political Discourse. Explorations across cultures (pp. 69–102). John Benjamins Publishers. https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.228.06san

Schweisfurth, M. (2013). Learner-centred education in international perspective. Journal of International and Comparative Education, (2)1, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.14425/00.45.70

Serpell, R. (2018). Application of research evidence in policy formulation to enhance child development Opportunities in Zambia. In S. Verma & A. Petersen (Eds), Developmental Science and Sustainable Development Goals for Children and Youth (pp. 375-388). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-96592-5_21

Sommer, D. (2015). Tidligt I skole eller legend læring? Evidensen om langtidsholdbar læring og udvikling i daginstitutionen. In J. Klitmøller, & D. Sommer (Eds.), Læring, dannelse og udvikling. Kvalifisering til fremtiden i daginstitution og skole. Hans Reitzels forlag.

Sommer, D., Pramling Samuelsson, I. and Hundeide, K. (2013). Early childhood care and education: a child perspective paradigm, European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 21(4), 459-475. https://doi.org/10.1080/1350293X.2013.845436

Stephens, D., & Harber, C. (2009). From shouters to supporters: Quality Education Project-final evaluation report. Save The Children, Norway.

Stipek, D., & Byler, P. (2004). The early childhood classroom observation measure. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 19(3), 375–397. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2004.07.007

Svarstad, H. (2005). A global political ecology of bioprospecting. In S. Paulson & L. Gezon (Eds.), Political Ecology Across Spaces, Scales and Social Groups (pp. 239–256). Rutgers University Press. https://doi.org/10.36019/9780813542546-014

Swadener, B. B., & Mutua, K. (2008). Decolonizing Performances. In N. Denzin, Y. Lincoln, & L. Smith (Eds.), Handbook of critical and indigenous methodologies (pp. 31-43). Sage. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781483385686

Temba, S. (2014). “Imiti Ikula Empanga”. The position of Early Childhood Care and Development in Central Zambia. Master Thesis. NTNU: Trondheim. SalomeMaster Thesis Final Document -PDF.pdf (ntnu.no)

Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: the development of higher psychological process. In M. Cole, V. John-Steiner, S. Scribner, & E. Souberman (Eds.). Harvard University Press. https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctvjf9vz4

Wadel, C. (1991). Feltarbeid i egen kultur: En innføring i kvalitativt orientert samfunnsforskning. SEEK.

Wood, E. (2007). Reconceptualising Child-Centred Education: Contemporary directions in policy, theory and practice in early childhood. FORUM, 49(1 & 2), 119-134. https://doi.org/10.2304/forum.2007.49.1.119

Østrem, S., & Hennum, B. A. (2016). Barnehagelæreren som profesjonsutøver. Cappelen Damm akademisk.

Downloads

Published

2021-04-12

How to Cite

Eriksen, E. A. B. (2021). A Child-Centred Discourse in Zambian Kindergartens? . Nordic Journal of Comparative and International Education (NJCIE), 5(1), 34–49. https://doi.org/10.7577/njcie.4148