Teachers’ pedagogical tact in craft-art learning situations

Pathic perceiving, acting and interacting




Emneord (Nøkkelord):

crafts, craft-art, pedagogical tact, pathic knowing, grounded theory


The goal of this research is to explore how teachers’ pedagogical tact occurs in craft-art learning situations, in the context of Finnish Basic Education in the Arts, by using the grounded theory (GT) method. The theoretical concepts—the term pathic, pedagogical tact and self-determination theory (SDT) and the key concepts autonomy, competence and relatedness—have been chosen based on how they supported the data analysis. The data consisted of five stimulated recall interviews with teachers. The GT analysis revealed that teachers’ pedagogical tact manifested itself in pathic perceiving, acting and interacting. The teachers supported students’ autonomy, relatedness and competence in craft-art learning by creating an open atmosphere and caring relationships with the students to support their sense of ownership and personal resources. The results provide conceptual understanding of craft-art pedagogy.


Milla Ojala, University of Helsinki

Department of Education, PhD student

Seija Karppinen, University of Helsinki

Senior Lecturer (PhD) 

Erja Syrjäläinen, University of Helsinki

Professor Emerita (PhD) 

Sirpa Kokko, University of Eastern Finland

Professor (PhD) 


Bloom, B. S. (1953). Thought-processes in lectures and discussions. Journal of General Education, 7(3), 160–169. http://www.jstor.org/stable/27795429

Bryant, A. (2009). Grounded theory and pragmatism: The curious case of Anselm Strauss. Qualitative Social Research, 10(3), Art. 2, 1–39. http://www. qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/viewArticle/1358/2850

Calderhead, J. (1981). Stimulated recall: A method for research on teaching. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 51(2), 211–217. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8279.1981.tb02474.x https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8279.1981.tb02474.x

Charmaz, C. (2006). Constructing grounded theory: A practical guide through qualitative analysis. Sage.

Charmaz, C., & Thornberg, R. (2021). The pursuit of quality in grounded theory. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 18(3), 305–327. https://doi.org/10.1080/14780887.2020.1780357 https://doi.org/10.1080/14780887.2020.1780357

Clark, C. M., & P. L. Peterson. (1981). Stimulated recall. In B.R. Joyce, C.C. Brown, & L. Peck, (Eds.) Flexibility in teaching: An excursion into the nature of teaching and training (pp.256–261). Longman.

Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2007). Research methods in education (6th ed.). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203029053 https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203029053

Corbin, J., & Strauss, A. (2015). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory (4th ed.). Sage.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behaviour. Plenum Press. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4899-2271-7 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4899-2271-7

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11(4), 227–268. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01 https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01

Finnish National Agency for Education. (2017). The National Core Curriculum for Basic Education in the Arts, Finnish National Agency for Education. https://www.oph.fi/fi/koulutus-ja-tutkinnot/kasityo-taiteen-perusopetuksessa-2017

Glaser, B., & Strauss, A. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. Aldine de Gruyter. https://doi.org/10.1097/00006199-196807000-00014 https://doi.org/10.1097/00006199-196807000-00014

Groth, C. (2016). Design- and Craft thinking analysed as Embodied Cognition. FormAkademisk, 9(1). https://doi.org/10.7577/formakademisk.1481 https://doi.org/10.7577/formakademisk.1481

Groth, C. (2017). Making sense through hands: Design and craft practice analysed as craft practice analysed as embodied cognition [Doctoral dissertation, Aalto University, School of Arts]. http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-952-60-7130-5

Hilmola, A. J., & Lindfors, E. (2017). Pupils’ performance in managing the holistic craft process. Techne Series - Research in Sloyd Education and Craft Science A, 24(1), 29–41. https://journals.oslomet.no/index.php/techneA/article/view/1808

Hodkinson, P. (2008). Grounded theory and inductive research. In N. Gilbert (ed.), Researching Social Life, (3rd ed.) (pp. 80–100). Sage.

Huotilainen, M., Rankanen, M., Groth, C., Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, P., & Mäkelä, M. (2018). Why our brains love arts and crafts: Implications of creative practices on psychophysical well-being. FormAkademisk, 11(2), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.7577/formakademisk.1908 https://doi.org/10.7577/formakademisk.1908

Häsänen, U., Lepistö, J., & Rönkkö, M.-L. (2018). Students confronting risks during holistic craft processes. Techne Series - Research in Sloyd Education and Craft Science A, 25(1), 31–48. https://journals.oslomet.no/index.php/techneA/article/view/1872

Illum, B., & Johansson, M. (2012). Transforming physical materials into artefacts -learning in the school's practice of sloyd. Techne Series - Research in Sloyd Education and Craft Science A, 19(1), 2–16. https://journals.oslomet.no/index.php/techneA/article/view/393

Jang, H., Kim, E., & Reeve, J. (2012). Longitudinal test of self-determination theory's motivation mediation model in a naturally occurring classroom context. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104(4), 1175–1188. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0028089 https://doi.org/10.1037/a0028089

Johansson, M. (2006). The work in the classroom for sloyd. Journal of Research in Teacher Education, 13(2-3), 152–171. https://etselts.ee/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/lofu_nr2-3_2006.pdf#page=152

Karppinen, S. (2005). “Mitä taide tekee käsityöstä?” Käsityötaiteen perusopetuksen käsitteellinen analyysi [“What does art make from crafts?” Conceptual Analysis of Basic Crafts Education] [Doctoral dissertation, University of Helsinki], Faculty of Education, Studies 263.

Karppinen, S. (2008). Craft-art as basis for human activity. International Journal of Art & Design Education, 27(1), 83–90. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-8070.2008.00560.x. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-8070.2008.00560.x

Korthagen, F. A. J., Attema-Noordewier, S., & Zwart, R. C. (2014). Teacher–student contact: Exploring a basic but complicated concept. Teaching and Teacher education, 40, 22–32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2014.01.006 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2014.01.006

Koskinen, A., Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, P., & Hakkarainen, K. (2015). Interaction and embodiment in craft teaching. Techne Series - Research in Sloyd Education and Craft Science A, 22(1), 59–72. https://journals.oslomet.no/index.php/techneA/article/view/1253

Krippendorff, K. (2004). Content analysis. An introduction to its methodology. Sage.

Kvellestad, R. V., Stana, I., & Vatn, G. (2021). Working Together: Cooperation or Collaboration?. FormAkademisk, 14(4), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.7577/formakademisk.4648 https://doi.org/10.7577/formakademisk.4648

Lyle, J. (2003). Stimulated recall: A report on its use in naturalistic research. British Educational Research Journal, 29, 861–878. https://doi.org/10.1080/0141192032000137349 https://doi.org/10.1080/0141192032000137349

Niemic, C. P., & Ryan, R. M. (2009). Autonomy, competence, and relatedness in the classroom: Applying self-determination theory to educational practice. Theory and Research in Education, 7(2), 133–144. https://doi.org/10.1177/1477878509104318 https://doi.org/10.1177/1477878509104318

Noddings, N. (2005). The challenge to care in schools. An alternative approach to education. (2nd ed.). Teachers College Press.

Noddings, N. (2012). The caring relation in teaching. Oxford Review of Education, 36(6), 771–781. https://doi.org/10.1080/03054985.2012.745047 https://doi.org/10.1080/03054985.2012.745047

Ojala, M. (2013). Constructing knowledge through perceptual processes in making craft-art, Techne Series - Research in Sloyd Education and Craft Science A, 20(3), 62–75. https://journals.oslomet.no/index.php/techneA/article/view/756

Ojala, M., Karppinen, S. & Syrjäläinen, E. (2018). Towards making sense of self through emotional experiences in craft-art, Craft Research, 9(2), 201–227. https://doi.org/10.1386/crre.9.2.201_1 https://doi.org/10.1386/crre.9.2.201_1

Patall, E. A., Dent, A. L., Oyer, M., & Wynn, S. R. (2013). Student autonomy and course value: The unique and cumulative roles of various teacher practices. Motivation and Emotion, 37, 14–32. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11031-012-9305-6 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11031-012-9305-6

Pöllänen, S. (2009). Contextualizing craft: Pedagogical models for craft education. The international journal of art & design education, 28(3), 249–260. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11031-012-9305-6 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-8070.2009.01619.x

Reeve, J., Bolt, E., & Cai, Y. (1999). Autonomy-supportive teachers: How they teach and motivate students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91(3), 537–548. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.98.1.209 https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.91.3.537

Reeve, J., & Jang, H. (2006). What teachers say and do to support students' autonomy during a learning activity. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(1), 209–218. http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&PAGE=reference&D=ovftd&NEWS=N&AN=00004760-199909000-00010 https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.98.1.209

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2017). Self-determination theory: Basic psychological needs in motivation, development, and wellness. Guilford Press. https://doi.org/10.1521/978.14625/28806 https://doi.org/10.1521/978.14625/28806

Ryan. R. M, & Deci, E. L. (2020). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation from a self-determination theory perspective: Definitions, theory, practices, and future directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2020.101860 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2020.101860

Rönkkö, M.- L., & Lepistö, J. (2016). The craft process developing student decision making. Techne Series - Research in Sloyd Education and Craft Science A, 23(1), 48–61. https://journals.oslomet.no/index.php/techneA/article/view/1457

Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, P., Huotilainen, M., Mäkelä, M., Groth, C., & Hakkarainen, K. (2016). How can neuroscience help understand design and craft activity? The promise of cognitive neuroscience in design studies. FormAkademisk, 9(1). https://doi.org/10.7577/formakademisk.1478 https://doi.org/10.7577/formakademisk.1478

Shusterman, R. (2013). Body and the arts: The need for somaesthetics. Diogenes, 59(1–2), 7–20. https://doi.org/10.1177/0392192112469159 https://doi.org/10.1177/0392192112469159

Sipman, G., Thölke, J., Martens R., & McKenney, S. (2019). The role of intuition in pedagogical tact: Educator views. British Educational Research Journal, 45(6), 1186–1202. https://doi.org/10.1002/berj.3557 https://doi.org/10.1002/berj.3557

Spendlove, D. (2007). A conceptualisation of emotion within art and design education. International Journal of Art & Design Education, 26(2), 155–166. https://doi-org.libproxy.helsinki.fi/10.1111/j.1476-8070.2007.00525.x https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-8070.2007.00525.x

Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1990). Basics of qualitative research. Grounded theory procedures and techniques. Sage.

Syrjäläinen, E. (2003). Käsityön opettajan pedagogisen tiedon lähteeltä: Persoonalliset toimintatavat ja periaatteet käsityön opetuksen kontekstissa [Doctoral dissertation, University of Helsinki]. http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:952-10-1211-0

Syrjäläinen, E., & Haverinen, L. (2012). Näkökulmia taitopedagogiikkaan. Kasvatus, 43(2), 160–170.

Toom, A. (2006). Tacit pedagogical knowing: At the core of teacher’s professionality [Doctoral dissertation, University of Helsinki]. http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:952-10-2996-X

Thornberg. R. (2012). Informed Grounded Theory. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 56(3), 243–259. https://doi.org/10.1080/00313831.2011.581686 https://doi.org/10.1080/00313831.2011.581686

van Manen, M. (1986). The tone of teaching. Richmond Hill.

van Manen, M. (1991a). Reflectivity and the pedagogical moment: the normativity of pedagogical thinking and acting. Curriculum Studies, 23(6), 507¬–536. https://doi.org/10.1080/0022027910230602 https://doi.org/10.1080/0022027910230602

van Manen, M. (1991b). The tact of teaching. The meaning of pedagogical thoughtfulness. Routledge.

van Manen, M. (1994). Pedagogy, virtue, and narrative identity in teaching. Curriculum Inquiry, 24(2), 135–170. https://doi.org/10.1080/03626784.1994.11076157 https://doi.org/10.1080/03626784.1994.11076157

van Manen, M. (1999) The pathic nature of inquiry and nursing. In I. Madjar, & J. Walton, (Eds). Nursing and the Experience of Illness: Phenomenology in Practice (pp. 17–35). Routledge.

van Manen, M. (2008). Pedagogical sensitivity and teachers practical knowing-in-action. Peking University Education Review, 1(23). http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=

van Manen, M. (2015). Pedagogical tact: Knowing what to do when you don’t know what to do. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315422855 https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315422855

van Manen, M., & Li, S. (2002). The pathic principle of pedagogical language. Teaching and Teacher Education, 18(2), 215–224. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0742-051X(01)00065-8 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0742-051X(01)00065-8

logo for the article




Hvordan referere

Ojala, M., Karppinen, S., Syrjäläinen, E., & Kokko, S. (2022). Teachers’ pedagogical tact in craft-art learning situations : Pathic perceiving, acting and interacting . FormAkademisk , 15(1). https://doi.org/10.7577/formakademisk.4822




Cited by