Problematizing Scientization in International Organizations

Authors

  • Teklu Abate Bekele The American University in Cairo

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.7577/njcie.4492

Keywords:

epistemic governance, international organizations, multilateral organizations, scientific multilaterlism, scientization

Abstract

Comparative education studies examined the roles multilateral organizations and non-governmental organizations play in global governance and international development. Emphasis has been given to their engagements both at policy and practice levels as well as their impacts. Generally, the mechanisms international organizations use to govern education and development seem qualitatively to change over time. The most recent emerging research trajectory explains how international organizations primarily use the power of scientific knowledge for organizational legitimacy, credibility, and impact. This is referred to in the literature as soft governance, epistemic governance, scientization, or scientific multilateralism, as it significantly relies on the authority of scientific knowledge as opposed to hard, financial preconditions, for global governance and development. Our understanding of scientization is still in its ‘infancy’, partly due to its relatively recent emergence and partly due to the use of varied indicators to assess it across organizational types. To contribute toward further theorization, this study problematizes scientization in international organizations, with a focus on multilateral, intergovernmental organizations. The study is organized around answering this overarching question: What are the conceptual and methodological attributes or features of scientization in international organizations? Using sociological theories and conceptions of policymaking and transfer, it discusses core substantive, methodological, and theoretical issues of scientization having relevance for further research.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Teklu Abate Bekele, The American University in Cairo

Associate Professor of International and Comparative Education, the Graduate School of Education, the American University in Cairo

References

Alexander, N. (2002). Paying for education: How the World Bank and IMF influence education in developing countries. Research Report, Citizens’ Network on Essential Services.

Barnnet, R. (2004). Learning for an unknown future. Higher Education Research & Development, 23(3), 247-260.

Bartels, I. (2018). Practices and power of knowledge dissemination international organizations in the externalization of migration management in Morocco and Tunisia. Movements: Journal for Critical Migration Boarder Regime Studies, 4(1), 47- 6.

Becher, T. (1981). Towards a definition of disciplinary cultures. Studies in Higher Education, 6(2), 109-122.

Becher, T. (1987). Disciplinary discourse. Studies in Higher Education, 12(3), 261-274.

Bekele, T. A. (2018). Context in comparative and international education studies. In A. W. Wiseman (Ed.), Annual review of comparative and international education 2017: International perspectives on education and society, Vol. 34 (pp. 275-299). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Bekele, T. A., & Ofoyuru, D. T. (2021). Emerging university-society engagements in Africa: An analysis of strategic plans. Journal of Comparative and International Higher Education, 13(1), 151-180.

Bekele, T. A., Toprak, M., Karkouti, I., & Wolsey, T. (2021). Regional intergovernmental organizations in the Global South: Emerging education policy nodes between the Global and the National. Educational Policy Analysis Archives, 29(130), 1-21.

Breakspear, S. (2012). The policy impact of PISA: An exploration of the normative effects of international benchmarking in school system performance. OECD Education Working Paper number 71. OECD.

Broome, A., Homolar, A., & Kranke, M. (2018). Bad science: International organizations and the indirect power of global benchmarking. European Journal of International Relations, 24(3), 514-539. https://doi.org/10.1177/1354066117719320

Carayannis, E. G.t, & Campbell, D. F. J. (2006). ‘Mode 3’: Meaning and implications from a knowledge systems perspective. In E. G., Carayannis & D. F. J. Campbell (Eds.), Knowledge creation, diffusion, and use in innovation networks and knowledge clusters: A comparative systems approach across the United States, Europe, and Asia (pp. 1-25). Praeger.

Carayannis, E. G., & Campbell, D. F. J. (2012). Mode 3 knowledge production in quadruple helix innovation systems: Twenty-first-Century democracy, innovation, and entrepreneurship for development. Springer.

Carnoy, M. (1999). Globalization and educational reform: What planners need to know. Fundamentals of Educational Planning. International Institute for Educational Planning, UNESCO.

Castells, M. (2000). The rise of the network society. Vol. 1. (2nd ed.). Blackwell Publishers.

Castells, M. (2001). Universities as dynamic systems of contradictory functions. In J. Muller et al. (Eds.), Challenges of globalisation: South African debates with Manuel Castells (pp. 206-223). Maskew Miller Longman.

Chabott, C. (1998). Constructing educational consensus: international development professionals and the world conference on education for all. International Journal of Educational Development, 18(3), 207-218

Chabbott, C. (2003). Constructing education for development: International organizations and education for all. Routledge Falmer.

Christensen, J. (2018). Economic knowledge and the scientization of policy advice. Policy Science, 51, 291-311. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11077-018-9316-6

Clark, B. R. (1987). The academic profession: National, disciplinary and institutional settings. University of California press.

Dale, R. (2007). Specifying globalization effects on national policy: a focus on the mechanisms. In B. Lingard, & J. Ozga (Eds.), The Routledge Falmer Reader in Education Policy and Politics (pp. 46 -64). Routledge.

Dale, R. (1999). Specifying globalization effects on national policy: a focus on the mechanisms. Journal of Education Policy, 14(1), 1-17.

Drori, G.. S., & Meyer, J. W. (2006). Global scientization: An environment for expanded organization. In G. S. Drori, G. S., J. W. Meyer, & H. Hwang (Eds.), Globalization and organization: World society and organizational change (pp. 50-68), Oxford University Press.

Etzkowitz, H. (2014). The entrepreneurial university wave: from ivory tower to global economic engine. Industry and Higher Education, 28(4), 223-232.

Etzkowitz, H., & Leydesdorff, L. (2000). The dynamics of innovation: From national systems and “Mode 2” to a triple helix of university-industry-government relations. Research Policy, 29, 109-123.

Francesco, F. (2014). Transfer agents, knowledge authority, and indices of regulatory quality: a comparative analysis of the World Bank and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis, 18(4), 1-16.

Gibbons, M., Limoges, C., Nowotny, H., Schwartzman, S., Scott P., & Trow, M. (1994). The new production of knowledge. The dynamics of science and research in contemporary society. Sage Publications Ltd.

Harber, C. (2014). Education and international development. Theory, practice and issues. Symposium Books.

Hel, S., & Biermann, F. (2017). The authority of science in sustainability governance: a structured comparison of six science institutions engaged with the Sustainable Development Goals. Environmental Science and Policy, 77, 211-220. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2017.03.008

Heyneman, S. P., & Lee, B. (2016). International organizations and the future of education assistance. International Journal of Educational Development, 48, 9-22.

Jacobi, A. P. (2012). Facilitating transfer: International organisations as central nodes for policy diffusion. In G. Steiner-Khamsi, & F. Waldow (Eds). Policy borrowing and lending in education (pp. 391-407). Routledge.

Jones, P. W. (2004). Taking the credit: Financing and policy linkages in the education portfolio of the World Bank. In G. Steiner-Khamsi (Ed.). The Global politics of educational borrowing and lending (pp. 188-199). Teachers College.

Jones, P. W. (2007), World Bank financing of education: Lending, learning and development. Taylor & Francis Group.

Jones, P. W., & Coleman, D. (2005). The United Nations and education multilateralism, development and globalization. Routledge Falmer.

Kendall, N. (2009). International development education. In R. Cowen, & A. M. Kazamias (Eds.), International handbook of comparative education (417-435). Springer Science + Business Media.

King, K. (1991). Aid and education in the developing world: The role of donor agencies in educational analysis. Longman.

Knorr Cetina, K. (1999). Epistemic cultures: How the sciences make knowledge. Harvard University Press.

Knorr Cetina, K. (2007). Culture in global knowledge societies: Knowledge cultures and epistemic cultures. Interdisciplinary Science Reviews, 32(4), 361-375.

Lee, M., & Friedrich, T. (2011) Continuously reaffirmed, subtly accommodated, obviously missing and fallaciously critiqued: Ideologies in UNESCO's lifelong learning policy. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 30(2), 151-169.

Mahon, R., & McBride, S. (2009). Standardizing and disseminating knowledge: the role of the OECD in global governance. European Political Science Review, 1(1), 83-101.

Marton, S. (2005). Academics and the Mode 2 society: Shifts in knowledge production in the humanities and social sciences. Governing Knowledge, 169-188.

Menashy, F., & Read, R. (2016). Knowledge banking in global education policy: A bibliometric analysis of World Bank publications on public-private partnerships. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 24(95). http://dx.doi.org/10.14507/epaa.24.2523

Menashy, F., & Shields, R. (2017), Unequal partners? networks, centrality, and aid to international education. Comparative Education, 53(4), 495-517.

Meyer, J. W. (2009). Reflections: institutional theory and world society. In G. Kruecken, & G. Drori (Eds.), World society: the writings of John W. Meyer (pp. 36-63). Oxford University Press.

Meyer, J. W. (2010). World society, institutional theories, and the actor. Annual Review of Sociology, 36, 1-20.

Meyer, J. W., Boli, J., Thomas, G. M., & Ramirez, F. O. (1997). World society and the nation-state. American Journal of Sociology, 103(1), 44-181.

Moos, L. (2009). Hard and soft governance: the journey from transnational agencies to school leadership. European Educational Research Journal, 8(3), 397-406. https://doi.org/10.2304/eerj.2009.8.3.397

Moutsios, S. (2009). International organizations and transnational education policy. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 39(4), 469-481.

Mundy, K. (2002). Education in a reformed World Bank. International Journal of Educational Development, 22(5), 483-508.

Mundy, K. (2006). Education For All and the new development compact. Review of Education, 52, 23-48.

Niemann, D., & Martens, K. (2018). Soft governance by hard fact? The OECD as a knowledge broker in education policy. Global Social Policy, 18(3), 267-283. https://doi.org/10.1177/1468018118794076

Nowotny, H., Scott, P., & Gibbons, M. (2001). Re-thinking science. Knowledge and the public in an age of uncertainty. Polity, Cambridge.

Nowotny, H., Scott, P., & Gibbons, M. (2003). Introduction: ‘Mode 2‘revisited: the new production of knowledge. Minerva, 41, 179-194.

Nowotny, H., Scott, P., & Gibbons, M. (2006). Rethinking science. Mode 2 in societal context: Knowledge creation diffusion and use in innovation networks and knowledge clusters. A comparative systems approach across United States. Europe and Asia, 39-51.

Rautalin, M., Syväterä, J., & Vento, E. (2021). International organizations establishing their scientific authority: Periodizing the legitimation of policy advice by the OECD. International Sociology, 36(1), 3–24.

Rhoades, G., & Slaughter, S. (2006). Mode 3, academic capitalism and the new economy: Making higher education work for whom? In V. P. J. Tynjälä, & G. Boulton-Lewis (Eds.), Higher education and working life-collaborations, confrontations, and challenges (pp. 9–33). Elsevier Ltd.

Robertson, S. L. (2012). Researching global education policy: Angles in/on/out. The Centre for globalization, education and societies. http://susanleerobertson.com/publications/.

Sandstrom, G. (2014). Higher education and science for development: The historical and conceptual foundations of Mode 3 knowledge. Education Sciences & Society, 1, 15-44.

Sellar, S., & Lingard, B. (2014). The OECD and the expansion of PISA: New global modes of governance in education. British educational Research Journal, 40(6), 917-936.

Shahjahan, R. A. (2010). The roles of international organizations (IOs) in globalizing higher education policy. In J. C. Smart & M. B. Paulsen (Eds.), Higher education: handbook of theory and research (pp. 369-407). Springer Science and Business Media.

Singh, J. P. (2011). United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). Creating norms for a complex world. Routledge.

Slaughter, S., & Rhoades, G. (2004). Academic capitalism and the new economy: Markets, state, and higher education. The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Stark, J. S., Lowther, M. A., Hagerty, B. M., & Orczyk, K. (1986). A conceptual framework for the study of preservice professional programs in colleges and universities. The Journal of Higher Education, 57(3), 231-258.

Steiner-Khamsi, G. (2014). Cross-national policy borrowing: understanding reception and translation. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 34(2), 153-167.

Wallerstein, I. (1974). The modern world system (Vol. 1). Academic Press.

Wiseman, A. W., Pilton, J., & Courtney Lowe, J. (2010). International educational governance models and national policy convergence. In K. Amos (Ed.), International Educational Governance (International Perspectives on Education and Society, Vol. 12), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 3-18. https://doi.org/10.1108/S1479-3679(2010)0000012004

Wiseman, A. (2013). Policy responses to PISA in comparative perspective. In H. D., Meyer, & A. Benavot (Eds.), Pisa, power, and policy: The emergence of global educational governance (pp. 303-322). Symposium Books.

Wiseman, A. W. Astiz, M. F., & Baker D. P. (2014). Comparative education research framed by neo-institutional theory: a review of diverse approaches and conflicting assumptions. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 44(5), 688-709.

Wiseman, A., Damaschke-Deitrick, L., & Bruce, E., Davidson, P., & Stevens, T. C. (2016). Transnational scientized education discourse: A cross-national comparison. In J. Schmid, K. Amos, J. Schrader, & A. Thiel (Eds.), Internationalisierte Welten der Bildung: Bildung und Bildungspolitik im globalen Vergleich (pp. 121-146). https://doi.org/10.5771/9783845265186-121

Zapp, M. (2017). The World Bank and education: Governing (through) knowledge. International Journal of Educational Development, 53, 1-11.

Zapp, M. (2018). The scientization of the world polity: International organizations and the production of scientific knowledge, 1950–2015. International Sociology, 33(1), 3-26.

Zapp, M. (2020). The authority of science and the legitimacy of international organisations: OECD, UNESCO and World Bank in global education governance. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 51(7), 1022-1041. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057925.2019.1702503

Downloads

Published

2021-10-26

How to Cite

Bekele, T. A. (2021). Problematizing Scientization in International Organizations . Nordic Journal of Comparative and International Education (NJCIE), 5(3), 6–22. https://doi.org/10.7577/njcie.4492